• C Jacob

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • CVD growth and characterization of 3C-SiC thin films

      A Gupta D Paramanik S Varma C Jacob

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      Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) thin films were grown on (100) and (111) Si substrates by CVD technique using hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) as the source material in a resistance heated furnace. HMDS was used as the single source for both Si and C though propane was available for the preliminary carbonization. For selective epitaxial growth, patterned Si (100) substrates were used. The effect of different growth parameters such as substrate orientation, growth temperature, precursor concentration, etc on growth was examined to improve the film quality. The surface morphology, microstructure and crystallinity of grown films were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

    • Silicon—a new substrate for GaN growth

      S Pal C Jacob

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      Generally, GaN-based devices are grown on silicon carbide or sapphire substrates. But these substrates are costly and insulating in nature and also are not available in large diameter. Silicon can meet the requirements for a low cost and conducting substrate and will enable integration of optoelectronic or high power electronic devices with Si based electronics. But the main problem that hinders the rapid development of GaN devices based on silicon is the thermal mismatch of GaN and Si, which generates cracks. In 1998, the first MBE grown GaN based LED on Si was made and now the quality of material grown on silicon is comparable to that on sapphire substrate. It is only a question of time before Si based GaN devices appear on the market. This article is a review of the latest developments in GaN based devices on silicon.

    • Etching of GaAs substrates to create As-rich surface

      A Chanda S Verma C Jacob

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      Several different cleaning procedures for GaAs (100) substrates are compared using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical microscopy. This work emphasizes the effect of the last etching step: using either HCl, HF–ethanol (5%) or static deionized water after HCl cleaning. All the procedures except HCl solution (1 : 1) produce an As-rich surface. Also, none of the etchants except HF–ethanol solution produce Ga or As-rich (oxide free) surfaces. Optical microscopic study shows different etch pits produced due to etching in different solutions.

    • Carbon nanotube synthesis from propane decomposition on a pre-treated Ni overlayer

      J Sengupta S K Panda C Jacob

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      Growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was performed by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) of propane on Si(111) with a pre-treated Ni overlayer acting as a catalyst. Prior to the growth of CNTs, a thin film of Ni was deposited on Si(111) substrate by evaporation and heat treated at 900°C. The growth of nanotubes was carried out at 850°C using propane as a source of carbon. Distribution of the catalyst particles over the Si substrate was analysed before and after heat treatment by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the grown material revealed that they are graphitic in nature. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to investigate the growth process and it was found that a catalytic particle was always situated at the tip of the tube thus implying a tip growth mechanism. Evidence for the presence of radial breathing mode from multi-wall nanotubes (MWNTs) in the grown sample was obtained from micro-Raman analysis. Finally, high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) analysis confirmed that the graphene layers of the CNTs are well ordered with typical 0.34 nm spacing.

    • Catalytic synthesis of ZnO nanorods on patterned silicon wafer—An optimum material for gas sensor

      S K Panda C Jacob

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      ZnO nanorods have been synthesized over etch-patterned Si (110) wafer using annealed silver thin film as growth catalyst. The growth of ZnO nanorods were performed by a two-step process. Initially, the deposition of Zn thin film was done on the annealed silver catalyst film over etch-patterned Si (110) substrate by thermal evaporation, and then annealed at 800°C in air. The etching of the patterned Si (110) wafers was carried out by 50% aqueous KOH solution. The samples were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. `V’ shaped grooves with no undercut were formed after etching due to the anisotropic nature of the KOH etchant. The etch-patterned wafer was used to provide larger surface area for ZnO growth by forming `V’-grooves. This ZnO film may be predicted as a very good material for gas sensor.

    • Influence of hydrogen on chemical vapour synthesis of different carbon nanostructures using propane as precursor and nickel as catalyst

      R K Sahoo H Mamgain C Jacob

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      The role of hydrogen in the catalytic chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes using sputtered nickel thin film as a catalyst is explained in this work. The growth of different carbon nanostructures with the variation in the precursor gas content was studied by keeping all other process parameters constant and using sputtered Ni thin film as a catalyst. The catalyst granule size, its external morphology and the resulting products were analysed. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and carbon nanoribbons (CNRs) were observed under different growth conditions. The different conditions of growth leading to form tubes, fibres or ribbons were analysed by varying the flow ratio of propane and hydrogen gas during the high temperature growth. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies confirmed the above structures under different growth conditions. The role of hydrogen on the surface passivation behaviour of the Ni catalyst and its correlative effect on the growth of carbon nanostructures is analysed. This direct approach can, in principle, be used to synthesize different types of carbon nanostructures by tailoring the hydrogen concentration.

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