• B S Murty

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Mechanical alloying—a novel synthesis route for amorphous phases

      B S Murty

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      Mechanical alloying (MA) pioneered by Benjamin is a technique for the extension of solid solubility in systems where the equilibrium solid solubility is limited. This technique has, in recent years, emerged as a novel alternate route for rapid solidification processing (RSP) for the production of metastable crystalline, quasicrystalline, amorphous phases and nanocrystalline materials. The glass-forming composition range (GFR), in general, is found to be much wider in case of MA in comparison with RSP. The amorphous powders produced by MA can be compacted to bulk shapes and sizes and can be used as precursors to obtain high strength materials. This paper reports the work done on solid state amorphization by MA in Ti-Ni-Cu and Al-Ti systems where a wide GFR has been obtained. Al-Ti is a classic case where no glass formation has been observed by RSP, while a GFR of 25–90 at.% Ti has been obtained in this system, thus demonstrating the superiority of MA over RSP. The free energy calculations made to explain GFR are also presented.

    • Synthesis of nanocrystalline NiAl over a wide composition range by mechanical alloying

      B S Murty K H S Singh S K Pabi

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      The paper reports the synthesis of nanocrystalline NiAl by mechanical alloying of pure metal mixture and a mixture of prealloyed powder with Ni/Al. A large number of compositions have been studied to establish the phase field of NiAl in the milled state. The phase field of NiAl in the ball milled condition was found to be much wider (10–68 at.% Ni) than its equilibrium phase field (45–59 at.% Ni). The metastable equilibrium achieved by mechanical alloying was identical for a given composition irrespective of the starting ingredients. The crystallite size of NiAl reached a minimum (5 nm) at the phase boundary of NiAl/Ni3Al.

    • Synthesis of nanocrystalline alloys and intermetallics by mechanical alloying

      S K Pabi B S Murty

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      Nanocrystalline Al3Ni, NiAl and Ni3Al phases in Ni-Al system and theα, β, γ, ɛ and deformation induced martensite in Cu-Zn system have been synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental blends in a planetary mill. Al3Ni and NiAl were always ordered, while Ni3Al was disordered in the milled condition. MA results in large extension of the NiAl and Ni3Al phase fields, particularly towards Al-rich compositions. Al3Ni, a line compound under equilibrium conditions, could be synthesized at nonstoichiometric compositions as well by MA. The phases obtained after prolonged milling (30 h) appear to be insensitive to the starting material for any given composition > 25 at.% Ni. The crystallite size was finest (∼ 6 nm) when NiAl and Ni3Al phases coexisted after prolonged milling. In contrast, in all Cu-Zn blends containing 15 to 85 at.% Zn, the Zn-rich phases were first to form, and the final crystallite sizes were coarser (15–80 nm). Two different modes of alloying have been identified. In case of NiAl and Al3Ni, where the ball milled product is ordered, as well as, the heat of formation (ΔHf) is large (> 120 kJ/mol), a rapid discontinuous mode of alloying accompanied with an additive increase in crystallite size is detected. In all other cases, irrespective of the magnitude of ΔHf, a gradual diffusive mode of intermixing during milling seems to be the underlying mechanism of alloying.

    • Alloying behaviour in nanocrystalline materials during mechanical alloying

      S K Pabi I Manna B S Murty

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      The alloying behaviour in a number of systems such as Cu-Ni, Cu-Zn, Cu-Al, Ni-Al, Nb-Al has been studied to understand the mechanism as well as the kinetics of alloying during mechanical alloying (MA). The results show that nanocrystallization is a prerequisite for alloying in all the systems during MA. The mechanism of alloying appears to be a strong function of the enthalpy of formation of the phase and the energy of ordering in case of intermetallic compounds. Solid solutions (Cu-Ni), intermetallic compounds with low ordering energies (such as Ni3Al which forms in a disordered state during MA) and compounds with low enthalpy of formation (Cu-Zn, Al3Nb) form by continuous diffusive mixing. Compounds with high enthalpy of formation and high ordering energies form by a new mechanism christened as discontinuous additive mixing. When the intermetallic gets disordered, its formation mechanism changes from discontinuous additive mixing to continuous diffusive one. A rigorous mathematical model, based on iso-concentration contour migration method, has been developed to predict the kinetics of diffusive intermixing in binary systems during MA. Based on the results of Cu-Ni, Cu-Zn and Cu-Al systems, an effective temperature (Teff) has been proposed that can simulate the observed alloying kinetics. TheTeff for the systems studied is found to lie between 0·42–0·52T1.

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      Posted on October 12, 2020

      Prof. Subi Jacob George — Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bengaluru
      Chemical Sciences 2020

      Prof. Surajit Dhara — School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
      Physical Sciences 2020

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