• Ajay Kumar

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Formation of InN nanoparticle and nanorod structures by nitrogen plasma annealing method

      Ajay Kumar Mann Deepak Varandani Bodh Raj Mehta Lalit Kumar Malhotra G Mangamma A K Tyagi

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      In the present study, a novel method involving nitrogen plasma annealing has been reported for preparing InN nanoparticle/nanorod structures and for improving the properties of InN nanoparticle layers. Plasma annealed structures have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. InN nanoparticle layers have been prepared using activated reactive evaporation set up. It has been observed that there is a remarkable improvement in the conductivity and crystallinity of InN nanoparticle layers on annealing in nitrogen plasma. This has been attributed to the increase in the nitrogen content of the samples. Experiments involving plasma annealing of In nanorods deposited oxide template has also been carried out. It was found that on plasma treatment In nanorods get converted to mixed phase InN nanorods with hexagonal and cubic fractions.

    • Microwave processing: A potential technique for preparing NiO–YSZ composite and Ni–YSZ cermet

      Kanchan Lata Singh Ajay Kumar Anirudh P Singh S S Sekhon

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      In the present study, microwave energy (2.45 GHz) has been used to prepare nickel oxide–yttria stabilized zirconia (NiO–YSZ) composites of composition, 𝑚NiO–(1 – 𝑚) Zr0.9Y0.1O1.95 (𝑚 = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6), from a precursor obtained by mixing NiO, Y2O3 and monoclinic ZrO2 in their stoichiometric ratio. The composites have been prepared by conventional processing also to compare the products with those of microwave processed products. During comparison, it was observed that NiO–YSZ composites of each composition obtained by microwave processing had cubic phase of YSZ while in the conventionally prepared composites of compositions, 𝑚 = 0.2 and 0.3, monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic phases of zirconia existed instead of its pure cubic phase. The composites were reduced to yield Ni–YSZ.

    • Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae DH-89

      Dhrubajyoti Nath Ajay Kumar Manhar Kuldeep Gupta Devabrata Saikia Shymal Kumar Das Manabendra Mandal

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      In recent years the application of metal nanoparticles is gaining attention in various fields. The present study focuses on the additive effect of `green’ synthesized iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) on dark fermentative hydrogen (H2) production by a mesophilic soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. The FeNPs were synthesized by a rapid green method from FeSO4 using aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini. The synthesized FeNPs showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 267 nm. The transmission electron microscopy images confirm that the formation of FeNPs was mainly porous and irregular in shape, with an average particle size of 20–25 nm. The presence of iron (Fe) in the synthesized FeNPs was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The comparative effect of FeSO4 and FeNPs on batch fermentative H2 production from glucose was investigated. The fermentation experiments reveal that the percentage and yield of H2 in FeNPs supplementation were increased significantly than the control (no supplementation) and FeSO4 containing media. The maximum H2 yield of 1.9 mol mol−1 glucose utilized was observed in 100 mg l−1 FeNPs supplementation, with two-fold increase in glucose conversion efficiency. Thus, the result suggests that FeNPs supplementation in place of FeSO4 could improve the bioactivity of H2 producing microbes for enhanced H2 yield and glucose consumption.

    • High resolution electron microscopic studies of HoAl3, Er0·5Gd0·5Al3 and Y0·91Er0·09Al3 in thin film form

      Anand Kumar Singh Ajay Kumar Singh M S Gupta O N Srivastava

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      Rare earth trialuminides (RAl3) exhibit an interesting series of structures changing from 2H to 3C in the bulk form. Many of the rare earth trialuminides have been recently found to exhibit curious structural characteristics such as the occurrence of the modulated phases. A detailed investigation of the formation synthesis and characterization of some binary and ternary alloys of the rare earth-aluminium system has been carried out. High resolution microscopic technique has been employed to study the modulated phases for some alloyse.g. HoAl3, Er0·5Gd0·5Al3 and Y0·91Er0·09Al3. With the help of lattice imaging technique, several new modulated phases have been investigated. A possible mechanism for the formation of these phases has been suggested. The details of the results obtained by lattice imaging technique are discussed.

    • Proton transport in KDP-family of ferroelectric materials

      Ajay Kumar S A Hashmi Suresh Chandra

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      Proton transport in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) is briefly reviewed. The experimental results of Wagner’s polarization measurement, coulometry, infrared spectroscopy, transient ionic current measurement, the variation of electrical conductivity with temperature and electrogravimetric analysis for KDP and ADP are reported. H+ and OH- ions are ascertained as the mobile ionic species. A new mechanism for the proton transport in KDP and ADP is suggested: A three-fold rotation of H2P4- units about any of the axes of PO4 tetrahedra leads to a configuration like O...H...H...O, the rearrangement of which provides H...O...H bridge that gets electrodissociated on the application of a d.c. electric field.

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