• A MAAROUFI

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Morphology, thermal stability and thermal degradation kinetics of cellulose-modified urea–formaldehyde resin

      M A ARSHAD A MAAROUFI G PINTO S EL-BARKANY A ELIDRISSI

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      This article reports a study on the structural characterization and evaluation of thermal degradation kinetics of urea–formaldehyde resin modified with cellulose, known as UFC resin. Structural characterization of UFC undertaken by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffractionanalyses reveals that the resin is fairly homogenous, and it constitutes of partly crystalline structure including urea–formaldehyde/cellulose interface morphology different from UFC precursors. Measurement of inherent thermal stability, probing reaction complexity and the thermal degradation kinetic analysis of UFC have been carried out by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA) under non-isothermal conditions. The integral proceduredecomposition temperature elucidates significant thermal stability of UFC. TGA/DTA analyses suggest highly complicated reaction profile for thermal degradation of UFC, comprising various parallel/consecutive reactions.Different differential and integral isoconversional methods have been employed to determine the thermal degradation activation energy of UFC. Substantial variation in activation energy with the advancement of reaction verifiesmulti-step reaction pathway of UFC. A plausible interpretation of the obtained kinetic parameters of UFC thermal degradation with regard to their physical meanings is given and discussed in this study.

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