Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Sulphurization temperature effect on suppressing CuS phase in kesterite CZTS films grown by electrodeposition method


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      In this study, kesterite Cu$_2$ZnSnS$_4$ thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide substrates by co-electrodeposition method followed with sulphurization at different temperatures. The deposited films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD analysis reveals that the films crystallinity is highly influenced by sulphurization temperature, and a temperature of 550°C was sufficient to remove the CuS secondary phase. Moreover, the film sulphurized at 550°C exhibits the lowest lattice strain, the minimal number of crystallites and the highest crystallite size (98.3 nm). However, the films sulphurized at temperature lower than 550°C is composed of kesterite CZTS with CuS as secondary phase. According to the Raman spectroscopy measurments, all films spectra exhibit the intense characteristic line of the CZTS (332 cm$^{–1}$) assigned to the A symmetry mode. The SEM images reveal that the surface morphology of the films became smooth and void-free as the sulphurization temperature increases. The film sulphurized at 550°C had a suitable bandgap of 1.47 eV, very close to the characteristic values for the pure kesterite CZTS.

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      Prof. Surajit Dhara — School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
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