Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Crystal structure, optical and electrical characteristics of rutile TiO₂ nanocrystallite-based photoanodes doped with GeO₂


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      The effect of germanium dioxide, GeO₂ doping on dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) TiO₂ nanocrystallite photoanodes with composition (TiO₂–(GeO₂)_{$x$} :0 ≤ $x$ ≤ 0.3 wt%) has been studied. The pure sample and GeO₂-doped samples have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method and analysed by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy techniques. The photovoltaic characteristics of the prepared samples have been studied by employing $J–V$ measurements. The pattern of XRD depicted that the dominating phase in the sample with $x$ = 0 is a rutile tetragonal phase with the P4₂/$mnm$ space group. An increase in GeO₂ concentration leads to an appearance and rise of another hexagonal phase structure of α-GeO₂ with the P3₂21 space group. Data obtained from the UV–visible spectroscopy measurements reflect that the optical energy gap ($E$^{optical}) increases with increasing GeO₂ content, while the optical refractive index decreases. $J–V$ photovoltaic characteristics confirm that the DSSCs doped with low-concentration doping, $x$ = 0.05 and 0.1 of GeO₂ have higher values for conversion efficiency (η), fill factor and short circuit current density ($J$_{sc}) compared with samples with high-concentration doping ($x$ = 0.2 and 0.3) of GeO₂. The present results showed that TiO₂–(GeO₂)_{$x$} ($x$ = 0.05 and 0.1 wt%) films are potential candidates for optical filter materials and optoelectrical and photo-conversion energy devices.

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