• A M Umarji

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Ceramic joining through reactive wetting of alumina with calcium aluminate refractory cements

      K Geetha A M Umarji T R N Kutty

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      Compositions in CaO-Al2O3 system have been prepared by gel-to-crystallite conversion method. Reactive powders of 1 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 1 and 3 : 1 of CaO and2O3 compositions were obtained by calcining the product at 800–1200°C. Fine grained powders were used as refractory cement for joining alumina ceramics. An optimum temperature of 1450°C for 4 h produced joints of satisfactory strength. The microstructure and X-ray phase analysis of the fractured joint surface clearly indicate reactive wetting of the alumina ceramics. This wetting enhances the joining of alumina substrates and can be attributed to the formation of Ca12Al14O33 liquid phase. The results are explained by using CaO-Al2O3 phase diagram.

    • Thermal expansion behaviour of barium and strontium zirconium phosphates

      P Srikari Tantri K Geetha A M Umarji Sheela K Ramasesha

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      Ba1.5-xSrxZr4P5SiO24 compounds withx = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5, belonging to the low thermal expansion NZP family were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The XRD pattern could be completely indexed with respect to$$R\bar 3$$ space group indicating the ordering of vacancy at the divalent cation octahedral sites. The microstructure and bulk thermal expansion coefficient from room temperature to 800°C of the sintered samples have been studied. All the samples show very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), withx = 0 samples showing negative expansion. A small substitution of strontium in the pure barium compound changes the sign of CTE. Similarly,x = 1.5 sample (pure strontium) shows a positive CTE and a small substitution of barium changes its sign.X = 1.0 and 1.25 samples have almost constant CTE over the entire temperature range. The low thermal expansion of these samples can be attributed to the ordering of the ions in the crystal structure of these materials

    • Synthesis and thermal expansion hysteresis of Ca1–𝑥Sr𝑥Zr4P6O24

      Basavaraj Angadi V M Jali M T Lagare N S Kini A M Umarji

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      The low thermal expansion ceramic system, Ca1-𝑥Sr𝑥Zr4P6O24, for the compositions with 𝑥 = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 was synthesized by solid-state reaction. The sintering characteristics were ascertained by bulk density measurements. The fracture surface microstructure examined by scanning electron microscopy showed the average grain size of 2.47 𝜇m for all the compositions. The thermal expansion data for these ceramic systems over the temperature range 25–800°C is reported. The sinterability of various solid solutions and the hysteresis in dilatometric behaviour are shown to be related to the crystallographic thermal expansion anisotropy. A steady increase in the amount of porosity and critical grain size with increase in 𝑥 is suggested to explain the observed decrease in the hysteresis.

    • Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

      G V Kunte Ujwala Ail S A Shivashankar A M Umarji

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      Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite, have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong 𝑏-axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient, indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. A homemade apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response to exposure to controlled pulses of a sensing gas has been employed to evaluate the sensitivity of the hydrotungstite films towards humidity.

    • Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

      G V Kunte S A Shivashankar A M Umarji

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      Thin films of the hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, hydrotungstite (H2WO4.H2O), have been grown on glass substrates using a dip-coating technique. The 𝑏-axis oriented films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations and on conductivity measurements, a novel sensing mechanism based on protonic conduction within the surface layers adsorbed onto the hydrotungstite film is proposed.

    • A novel method to control oxygen stoichiometry and thermoelectric properties in (RE)BaCo2O5+𝛿

      T Dasgupta S Sumithra A M Umarji

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      Rare earth cobaltites of the type (RE)BaCo2O5+𝛿 (RE = Y, Gd, Eu and Nd) were synthesized by solid state technique. A novel, fast quenching technique was used to tune the oxygen content in these compounds. Room temperature Seebeck and electrical resistivity measurements were used to infer the oxygen content. A maximum in the 𝑆 and ρ was observed for all the compositions when 𝛿 value was close to 0.5.

    • Estimation of vapour pressure and partial pressure of subliming compounds by low-pressure thermogravimetry

      G V Kunte Ujwala Ail P K Ajikumar A K Tyagi S A Shivashankar A M Umarji

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      A method for the estimation of vapour pressure and partial pressure of subliming compounds under reduced pressure, using rising temperature thermogravimetry, is described in this paper. The method is based on our recently developed procedure to estimate the vapour pressure from ambient pressure thermogravimetric data using Langmuir equation. Using benzoic acid as the calibration standard, vapour pressure–temperature curves are calculated at 80, 160 and 1000 mbar for salicylic acid and vanadyl bis-2,4-pentanedionate, a precursor used for chemical vapour deposition of vanadium oxides. Using a modification of the Langmuir equation, the partial pressure of these materials at different total pressures is also determined as a function of temperature. Such data can be useful for the deposition of multi-metal oxide thin films or doped thin films by chemical vapour deposition (CVD).

    • Synthesis, microstructure and thermal expansion studies on Ca0.5+𝑥/2Sr0.5+𝑥/2Zr4P6−2𝑥Si2𝑥O24 system prepared by co-precipitation method

      Basavaraj Angadi M R Ajith A M Umarji

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      We report on the synthesis, microstructure and thermal expansion studies on Ca0.5+𝑥/2Sr0.5+𝑥/2Zr4P6−2𝑥Si2𝑥O24 (𝑥 = 0.00 to 1.00) system which belongs to NZP family of low thermal expansion ceramics. The ceramics synthesized by co-precipitation method at lower calcination and the sintering temperatures were in pure NZP phase up to 𝑥 = 0.37. For 𝑥 ≥ 0.5, in addition to NZP phase, ZrSiO4 and Ca2P2O7 form as secondary phases after sintering. The bulk thermal expansion behaviour of the members of this system was studied from 30 to 850 °C. The thermal expansion coefficient increases from a negative value to a positive value with the silicon substitution in place of phosphorous and a near zero thermal expansion was observed at 𝑥 = 0.75. The amount of hysteresis between heating and cooling curves increases progressively from 𝑥 = 0.00 to 0.37 and then decreases for 𝑥 ≥ 0.37. The results were analysed on the basis of formation of the silicon based glassy phase and increase in thermal expansion anisotropy with silicon substitution.

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