Investigations on the maturity stages, pattern of distribution of ova in the ovary, growth of the ova to maturity, minimum size at first maturity, sex ratio, growth rate of the ovary, spawning frequency, spawning season and fish-fecundity relationships of the larvivorous fishMacropodus cupanus indicate the extent to which breeding is geared to take maximum advantage of environmental and other factors which afford the greatest opportunity for survival and development of the new generation. The mode of development and growth of the ova reveal that the first maturation is normally delayed till the main period of body growth is over; further, the linear relationships derived between growth rate of the (female) gonads and fish size are a reflection of the symmetry of the gonads. Correlating data on egg size, fecundity and conditions for incubation,M. Cupanus with its high fecundity and rapid development can be said to incline towards ‘r-selection’ on the continuum between ‘k’ and ‘r-selection’. Investigations on spawning frequency and season reveal the protracted spawning season from April to September and the shorter one in January and February. The distinct monsoon spawning peak leading to an increase of its population during this season coincides with the peak incidence of mosquito larvae, indicating the larvivorous potential of the fish.