• Rajbir Singh

      Articles written in Proceedings – Animal Sciences

    • Initial dyadic social behavior in free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

      Rajbir Singh

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      Initial dyadic social interactions of 13 rhesus monkeys were observed in a free-ranging group of 26 members. Each subject was observed for 900 intervals of 20 sec each by focal animal method. The obtained matrix of approach interactions was separately analyzed in relation to sex and dominance level of interacting animals. Dominance ranks were determined by approach-withdrawal scores and its validity was assessed with other submissive scores. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant preference for opposite sexed animals. High ranked animals initiated more social interactions than was expected; however, other animals approached less towards them. It is concluded that in free-ranging group situations, members do not interact at random, rather their interactions are patterned by individual characteristics, such as age, sex and relative dominance level in the group hierarchy.

    • Ontogeny of play behavior in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

      Rajbir Singh

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      Self and social play of 29 rhesus monkeys were observed in a free-ranging group situation for 6 months. Subjects of various age-sex classes were observed by focal animal and one-zero sampling. Frequencies for 5 categories of play were analyzed in a 3 way factorial analysis of variance. Age and frequencies of play were found to be inversely related. Analysis also revealed that except during infancy, females played more than male subjects. Among categories, self play and non-contact mutual play were dominant forms than those involving physical contact of either or both partners. However, it was also influenced by age, as the preference shifts from self play to non-contact mutual play in a developmental perspective. Among adult monkeys, the occurrence of play was least. Obtained results have been interpreted in terms of ontogenetic and situational variables. Rhesus monkeys preferred peers in social play than youngers and elders. However, adolescent/subadult and adult animals played with younger animals.

    • Ontogeny of aggressive and submissive behaviour in free living rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

      Rajbir Singh

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      Twenty rhesus monkeys of various age-sex classes were observed by focal animal and one-zero sampling technique for 12 months at Galta hillocks near Jaipur (Rajasthan). Behavioural elements sampled were screech, scream, bark, threat, chase, clasppull, bite, fear grimace, lip-smack and submit. These elements were categorized into aggressive and submissive behaviours by pooling the frequencies of elements. Mean per cent frequencies were derived and analysed by ANOVA, trend analysis, Kruskal Wallis one way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test. It was found that submissive behaviour among females and aggressive behaviour among males changed with age. The findings have been interpreted on the basis of social conditions and the typical spatial position of the age-sex class within the group space/structure.

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