• R V Krishnamoorthy

      Articles written in Proceedings – Animal Sciences

    • Nematode parasites of the slender loris,Loris tardigradus

      R V Krishnamoorthy K Srihari Hafeezur Rahaman G L Rajasekharaiah

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      Occurrence ofPhysaloptera Rud. 1819 (Syn.Chlamydonema sp.) andSubulura Molin 1860 (Syn.Allodapa sp.) in the slender Loris,Loris tardigradus, was not known thus far and this paper reports the occurrence of these two parasites. There was a 35·7% occurrence ofPhysaloptera masoodi in the stomach and a 100% occurrence ofSubulura indica in the large intestine and the vermiform appendix of 14 animals studied. WhilePhysaloptera masoodi developed in the stomach, theSubulura indica did in the appendix. Data on the size and the dimensions of these parasites are tabulated and nematode parasites in the loris and their pathogenicity to the host are discussed.

    • Distribution and abundance of earthworms in Bangalore

      Radha D Kale R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Distribution pattern of 6 genera of earthworms in Bangalore has shown that one species was found dominant in a given locality. Causal factors for such niche differentiation might be seen in the nature of available organic matter in the area. However, the population density of the species is not at all related to the organic matter of the soil.

    • A comparative account of coelomocytes and haemocytes of five species of earthworms

      Radha D Kale R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Coelomocytes and haemocytes of 5 local species of earthworms were studied. The structure of different cells is the same in different species. The total and differential account of the haemocytes showed some species specificity.Perionyx excavatus, a species that can be adapted to a wide range of temperature, on acclimation to 8° C cold, did not show any significant change in the total count of cells, but did show some changes in the density of different stages of eleocytes.

    • Geotactic responses of the field crabOziotelphusa senex senex in relation to salinity adaptation

      M Vailene aileneV Subrahmanyam R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Geotactic responses of male freshwater field crab,Oziotelphusa senex senex have been studied with reference to salinity adaptation. The crabs exhibited a stereotyped walking behaviour. The pairsL2R3,L3R2,L4R1 andL1P4 comprising left and right walking legs were used for the movement in reciprocating fashion. The weight of the crab influenced the orientation angle significantly. Blinding of the eyes did not affect the orientation. Irrespective of the inclination angle, the salinity adaptation reduced the walking rates. All these results have been discussed in terms of the greater scope and potential for escape, available in salinity adapted individuals.

    • Pesticidal effects of SevinR (1-naphthyl-n-methyl carbamate) on the survivability and abundance of earthwormPontoscolex corethrurus

      Radha D Kale R V Krishnamoorthy

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      The influence of different concentrations of SevinR (1-naphthyl-n-methyl carbamate) a carbamate, was experimented on population ofPontoscolex corethrurus under laboratory conditions. The survivability, activity and fecundity of the worms are greatly influenced by the residue concentrations. The concentrations upto a level of 100 ppm favours the life activities of individuals whereas beyond this level the residual effect showed an adverse effect on the population.

    • Variations in glycogen, total fat, and caloric energies of the American oysterCrassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from natural reefs in the Mississippi Sound

      R V Krishnamoorthy G J Lakshmi Patricia Biesiot A Venkataramiah

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      Variations in fat content, glycogen and calorific values for meat content were studied inCrassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from Mississippi Sound with reference to sex and size during four different seasons of the year. Lean (October) oysters were characterised by lower glycogen, greater percentage of hydrocarbons, and sterols. Fat (February) oysters were characterised by higher glycogen, phospholipid, and triglyceride. There were size- and sex-related variations in the calorie content of the meat of oyster in all the months tested. In April the oysters had more calories. The free sterol fraction of oyster fat, yielded the highest calorific energies. The phospholipids from the lean oyster yielded more calories than those from fat oysters. The degree of unsaturation of the lipid class was believed to cause these variations in the calorie content of oysters.

    • Aggressive interactions among wild and domestic rodents

      Shakunthala Sridhara A Uma Narasimham R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Intra- and interspecific bisexual encounters betweenBandicota bengalensis, Rattus rattus, Tatera indica and domesticated strain ofRattus norvegicus were staged for 10 min every day for seven days. The amicable, aggressive, submissive/avoidance and residual behaviour counts were recorded for each partner of the different species combinations and compared. The different species pair combinations were classified as amicable, aggressive and neutral, depending on the ratios of aggressive and amicable behaviour counts. These results are discussed with reference to inter-species relationships, resident-intruder status, body weight-dominance correlation, ‘bully effect’ of albino rats and sex differences in agonistic behaviour.

    • Rhythmic oscillations in non-aggressive social behaviour inBandicota bengalensis

      Shakunthala Sridhara R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Non-aggressive social behaviour rhythms ofBandicota bengalensis were studied in the laboratory. The species exhibited 95% rhythmicity for social behaviour but the rhythms were uni- or bimodal and were influenced by the number and sex of interacting conspecifics. Peaks occurred at 0900 and 1800 hr. Males were more socially active than females.

    • Aggressive behaviour of captiveBandicota bengalensis

      Shakunthala Sridhara R V Krishnamoorthy

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      The aggressive behaviour rhythm ofBandicota hengalensis under different social conditions were studied in the laboratory. The number, intensity and duration of aggressive behaviour peaks varied depending on the number, sex and social status of the interacting conspecific /s. Significantly the peaks of aggression were recorded during the dark period. In heterosexual conflicts both sexes were equally belligerent. However in male interactions with more females, the former emerged dominant always. Similarly one male dominated another in male-male encounters. Confrontation amongst several males in the presence of female indicat ed the existence of onlyalpha andomega males.

    • Biochemical correlates of the mechanism of salt uptake and excretion in the gills of freshwater field crab on adaptation to higher salinity

      M V V Subramanyam R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Male adult paddy field crabs (Oziotelphusa senex senex) were adapted to salinity of 34%. After 3 months the gill lamella of the crab was sectioned and examined under an electron microscope and compared with that of freshwater crabs. The apical region nearest to cuticular boundary showed numerous foldings projecting into the cytoplasm of the epithelium. This brush border appearance disappeared in salinity-adapted crabs. Mitochondria also reduced in number in the sections of salinity adapted crabs. In seawater medium the crabs showed a hypo-osmotic regulation. This regulation is said to be involved in active sodium excretion through gills, in contrast to the active Na+ uptake found in freshwater crabs. The ultrastructural changes have been correlated with significant reduction in cholesterol and phospholipid molar ratios of the gill as well as Na+ + K+ ATPase and divalent ion ATPase activities of particulate system of the crab. The univalent ion ATPase activity served as a marker to show the reduced uptake of Na+ on adaptation to higher salinity. The reduced Ca2+ ATPase activity in the gills of seawater adapted crabs has been correlated with the reduced phospholipid content of the gill tissue.

    • Biological activity of earthworm casts: An assessment of plant growth promotor levels in the casts

      R V Krishnamoorthy S N Vajranabhaiah

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      Biochemical analyses and auxin and cytokinin bioassays were performed to test the biological activity of wormcasts. Both cellulose paper pulp and soil casts ofLampito mauritii were rich in ammonia, urea, organic carbon content, organic matter, soluble phosphorus and ionic potassium levels. The total nitrogen content of the soil remained unaffected by worm activations. The casts ofLampito mauritii, Pheretima elongata, Pontoscolex corethrurus andOcnerodrilus occidentalis had greater urea levels relative to ammonia levels in contrast to those ofDrawida barwelli, Octochaetoides beatrix andPerionyx excavatus. Worm activations of the leaf compost amended-soils by these species reduced the total phenol levels to varying degree depending on the species examined. Aging and exposures to light reduced the activity levels of these plant growth promotors in the casts ofL. mauritii. A positive correlation between the worm density at the site of soil sampling and the plant growth promotor levels in the samples was obtained. The origin of these promotors from the gut microflora of the worm and their subsequent release into the environment were discussed.

    • Population structure of earthworms in woodlands of Karnataka

      R V Krishnamoorthy S Ramachandra

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      Woodlands in karnataka differ with respect to earthworm species and their densities.Lampito mauriii Kinberg,Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull., andPheretima (now,Polypheretima)elongata E Perrier are the most dominant species. Significant positive correlations were obtained between the species number, diversity and population density on one hand, and plant species number, abundance, diversity, cover and biomass on the other. A major factor for the variations in the richness of worms was accounted through vegetation-related factors. Soil organic matter had a strong influence on the worm diversity.

    • Factors affecting the surface cast production by some earthworms of Indian tropics

      R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Forty one sites in mango gardens located in different districts of southern Karnataka were selected for the study during September 1984. Rate of surface cast production, earthworm density and species composition of each site were recorded and compared in relation to the soil moisture, pH, temperature, organic matter and soil type of each site. Only 19 out of the 41 sites examined showed surface casting. Rate of surface cast production is dependent on soil, pH, temperature, soil type and organic matter content. The bulk density of the soil established a direct linear correlation, and the field capacity of soil, a perfect U-shaped (parabolic) relationship with the rate of surface cast production. Sandy loams had greater species diversity as well as population density than the clays. Worms were not found in heavy sands and acid soils. Positive correlations were obtained between organic matter and species diversity or density; other factors were poorly correlated. A positive correlation between the cast output and the relaxed length of the worm was obtained. It is discussed that the field capacity and bulk density of soils are the determining factors for variations in surface cast production.

    • Mineralization of phosphorus by faecal phosphatases of some earthworms of Indian tropics

      R V Krishnamoorthy

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      The casts of earthworms contain greater amounts of extractable inorganic phosphate than underlying soils. Casts contain higher phosphatase activity than that occurs in undigested soil, which increases the inorganic phosphorus released by mineralization. Of the 4 species compared,Perionyx excavatus showed a higher faecal phosphatase activity. Composition of casts vary with species. pH increases and nutrients accumulate in worm-activated soils. Based on the data on surface cast production, it is estimated that grasslands around Bangalore show a phosphorus turnover of about 55 kg ha−1 y−1, and the woodlands, 38 kg ha−1 y−1.

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