R S Prasad
Articles written in Proceedings – Animal Sciences
Volume 94 Issue 3 June 1985 pp 225-238
The only common factor the haematophagous arthropods share among themselves is the blood sucking habit. This habit which ties them down to an unnatural assemblage, confers on them certain parallelism even in their natural diversities. Behavioural activities of haematophagous arthropods, like those of many other animals, centre around 3 major aspects: searching for a suitable host and feeding on it; meeting of the sexes and finding a suitable place for oviposition.
Behaviour of blood sucking insects assume importance because these insects act as vectors of many blood-borne infections of man and animals. In this article, feeding and reproductive behaviours of haematophagous insects are analysed on certain hierarchy of events like: motivation; search and consummation.
Volume 95 Issue 4 July 1986 pp 475-485
A study relating to seasonal prevalence and host visitation of
Volume 95 Issue 5 October 1986 pp 549-555
A year round study was conducted in Trivandrum city during the period of March 1984 to February 1985 to elucidate the relation between certain physico-chemical factors and seasonal density of
Volume 96 Issue 3 May 1987 pp 253-273
Hosts of haematophagous arthropods range from amphibians to mammals. Blood meal is essential for egg production. Quantity and quality of ingested blood are important in realization of optimum reproductive potentials. In terms of egg production, the lowest nutritive value is for human blood. This inequality is probably based on differences in proteins and their constituent amino acids. Carbohydrates in the diet have no direct contribution to reproduction. Very little is known about sterol, lipid, vitamin and salt requirements for reproduction. In the mosquito
Autogenous egg production seen in many dipterans is controlled both by the nutrition of the immature stages and genetic mechanisms.
Quantity and the rate of utilization of the ingested blood decide the frequency of host visitation and feeding. Vertebrate blood sera contain substances which stimulate (secretogogue) as well as inhibit digestion. Nutrition plays some role in male maturation in insects, though not in spermatogenesis. In many ticks even spermatogenesis is influenced by adult blood meal.
Volume 96 Issue 4 July 1987 pp 349-360
Obligatory haematophagy is the end result of long standing interspecific associations. Present day specificities to host, blood meal and physiological stage of the host are all offshoots of the primitive interspecific associations. The cause/effect relationship of these dependencies and specificities are probably based on the route through which haematophagy evolved in different groups of insects.
In the present analysis, flea-host association is taken into consideration. It is possible to find an array of host relationships ranging from promiscuous and catholic host associations to strict ones. In general 3 categories may be recognized. In fleas like
It appears that vertebrate associations of Siphonaptera initiated as adaptations to the nest microhabitat and haematophagy and adaptations to physical/chemical factors of epidermal habitat being subsequent developments.