• N Sukumaran

      Articles written in Proceedings – Animal Sciences

    • Oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion in mullet,Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton), with special reference to swimming speed

      N Sukumaran M N Kutty

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      An attempt is made to study the oxygen consumption, CO2 output and the nitrogen excretion of the freshwater mulletRhinomugil corsula. It is found that whereas the O2 consumption, the CO2 output and the respiratory quotient decreased with increase in the duration of exercise, the NH3-N and total-N excretion showed the opposite trend.

    • pH regulation during long-term swimming in the mullet,Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton)

      N Sukumaran M N Kutty

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      The regulation of blood pH during long-term swimming in mullet,Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton) acclimated to 30° C and forced to swim in a tunnel type apparatus for five hours continuoustly was studied. The accumulation of lactic acid in muscle caused a reduction of muscle pH. But in blood the reduction of pH during the 1st hour of exercise was followed by the recovery of pH to norma level during the later hours of exercise. The maintenance of pH was apparently caused by the retention of CO2 in the form of HCO3 ions in blood.

    • Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide output and nitrogen excretion in cichlid fish,Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), with special reference to swimming speed

      N Sukumaran

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      Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide output, nitrogen excretion, respiratory quotient, ammonia quotient and nitrogen quotient in cichlid fish,Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) acclimated to and tested in freshwater at 30°C, were obtained with special reference to swimming speed (20–77 cm/sec). Tilapia continuously swimming for 5 hr derived energy both from aerobic and anaerobic sources during the initial phase of exercise, whereas during the later phase the energy utilization is completely from aerobic source, as it is evident from respiratory quotient values. It also utilized more proteins for energy during the later phase of exercise, as evident from the increased ammonia-N as well as total N excretion and the respective quotients. The increased protein utilization may be of advantage in maintaining acid-base balance and also in conserving (Na+) in fish.

    • Energy utilization in freshwater mullet,Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton) under exercise

      N Sukumaran M N Kutty

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Energy utilization in mullet,Rhinomugil corsula, exercised continuously for 5 h at different swimming speeds ranging between 20 and 77 cm s−1 was studied in a tunnel type apparatus. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient decreased with increase in the duration of exercise. The initial (1st h) respiratory quotient, which was always above unity, increased with intensity of swimming speed, but the steady (5th h) respiratory quotient remained below unity, at about the same level irrespective of the increase in activity.

      Nitrogen (NH3 and total) excretion, ammonia quotient and nitrogen quotient increased with both duration and intensity of exercise, indicating the increased protein utilization during the later phase of exercise.

      An attempt has been made to estimate the relative energy derivation from different substrates with some assumptions for the entire 5 h of exercise at 20 and 77 cm s−1. At 20 cm s−1 the energy derived aerobically from proteins, carbohydrates and fats and that from anaerobic source (carbohydrate) were estimated as 13040·3, 1378·2, 2367·3 and 1048·5 J kg−1 fish, being 73·1, 7·7, 13·3 and 5·9% of a total of 17834·3 J kg−1 fish, whereas at a swimming speed of 77 cm s−1 it was estimated as 33587·9, 2841·4 and 1305·4 J kg−1 fish from proteins, fats and anaerobic source respectively, being 89·0, 7·5, 3·5% of a total of 37734·7 J kg−1 fish.

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