• K Krishna Kumar

      Articles written in Proceedings – Animal Sciences

    • Ecology of Indian estuaries—V: Primary productivity of the Ashtamudi estuary, south-west coast of India

      N Balakrishnan Nair P K Abdul Azis K Dharmaraj M Arunachalam K Krishna Kumar N K Balasubramanian

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      Primary productivity at four representative stations in the Ashtamudi estuary has been presented. The average gross and net productivities in the surface water was maximum at Neendakara, the bar mouth zone and minimum at Kadapuzha, the riverine zone consistently exposed to pollution from paper mill effluents. Ashtamudi, the station directly on the gradient line and Kanjirakode, the station equidistant from Kadapuzha and Ashtamudi presented a transition phase with regard to the primary productivity. In the bottom water also productivity was minimum at the polluted zone. Generally productivity at sub-surface levels was higher than that at the surface. A seasonal pattern, independent of various environmental parameters, was discernible both in the gross and net productivity changes at surface and sub-surface levels. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen, silicate and nitrite helped to maintain higher productivities at Neendakara, Ashtamudi and Kanjirakode on several occasions during the year. The fact that productivity at the polluted Kadapuzha station was the lowest, indicates that the paper mill effluent has considerably disturbed the productivity mechanism of this otherwise healthy ecosystem.

    • Ecology of biofouling onCrassostrea madrasensis (Preston) (Mollusca:Bivalvia) in a tropical backwater

      N Balakrishnan Nair K Dharmaraj P K Abdul Azis M Arunachalam K Krishna Kumar

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      Ecology of biofouling on the edible estuarine oysterCrassostrea madrasensis (Preston) has been investigated in the Ashtamudi Backwater of the southwest coast of India. Fouling was highly conspicuous throughout the year and dominant groups included barnacles, serpulids, bryozoans and modiolids. Intensity of fouling varied from 73 to 179 % on living oyster valves and 65 to 172 % on dead valves with respective annual averages of 118 and 127%. Substrate selection and settlement of the different groups were mostly opportunistic. Barnacles were the most dominant, living and dead ones collectively contributing to about 26 % of fouling on living valves and 32 % on dead valves. Serpulid fouling was 22 % both on living and dead oyster valves, bryozoans 15 and 12%, modiolids 11 and 12% and the miscellaneous groups formed 27 and 20 % respectively. Availability of free settling space and fouling in relation to substrate size were also investigated. Total fouling was very intense on oysters of 25–35 cm2 size group. Impact of biofouling on oysters and certain earlier studies on the topic are discussed.

    • Ecology of Indian estuaries: Studies on the zooplankton ecology of Kadinamkulam Backwater

      N Balakrishnan Nair K Krishna Kumar M Arunachalam P K Abdul Azis K Dharmaraj

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      Ecology of the zooplankton of Kadinamkulam Backwater, a brackish water lake along the south-west coast of India, has been studied from February 1980-January 1981. Seasonal distribution of the zooplankton followed an uniform pattern throughout the backwater. Zooplankton in the Kadinamkulam Backwater is composed of foraminifers, coelenterates, nematodes, rotifers, chaetognaths, polychaetes, cladocerans, ostracods, amphipods, copepods, decapod larvae, insect larvae, bivalves, tunicates, and fish eggs and larvae. Among these, rotifers, copepods and copepod nauplii are the major components which form the bulk of the zooplankton (nearly 98 %). A distinct regional variation is discernible in the dominance of zooplankton components. Copepods constitute the dominant group near the barmouth and middle portion of the backwater, while rotifers are dominant in the upper reaches, where freshwater influx was relatively high. Factors influencing seasonal variation and distribution have also been discussed.


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