• J Muthukrishnan

      Articles written in Proceedings – Animal Sciences

    • Prediction of bioenergetics components of lepidopterous larva

      J Muthukrishnan T J Pandian

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      Using the bioenergetics data for the final instarAchaea Janata larva exposed to a wide range of ration levels and temperatures, a linear regression model to predict the bioenergetics components of lepidopterous larva has been developed. From the dry weight of faeces egested (F) it is possible to estimate the consumption (C), production (P) and metabolism (R). Validity of the proposed model has been tested using the data reported in literature.

    • Effect of temperature and metamorphic index on acid phosphatase activity ofRana tigrina

      J Muthukrishnan M Senthamizhselvan S Mohan

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      Activity of tail, gut and muscle acid phosphatase ofRana tigrina tadpoles in relation to metamorphic index and temperature was studied. Optimum pH of the enzyme was between 4·0 and 4·5.Km for the muscle phosphatase was low, indicating its greater affinity to the substrate. With advancing stage of metamorphosis or increasing temperature, activity of the enzyme increased. At metamorphic climax the activity was low. Tail acid phosphatase displayed higher activity than the gut or muscle phosphatase, indicating the role of the enzyme in autolysis of the tail during metamorphosis.

    • Relation between feeding and egg production in some insects

      J Muthukrishnan T J Pandian

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      Food consumption and fecundity of insects vary with life style and feeding pattern. In general, species which feed during the larval and adult stages and maintain a smaller biomass, allocate a higher percentage of the ingested energy to egg production (e.g.Oryzaephilus surinamensis; 34.4%). Species which grow larger but feed at lower rates and pass through extended adult life span display very low egg production efficiency (e.g.Poecilocerus pictus: 0·7%). A few others feed at faster rates during the larval period, shorten the adult phase and allocate fairly a high percentage of the ingested energy to egg production (e.g.Bombyx mori; 5·8%). Food quality regulates food consumption and thereby significantly influences egg production in several polyphagous insects. Prey density influences food consumption and fecundity of predators. Regression of fecundity on blood meal ingested for two hemipterans and two dipterans revealed that the dipterans are autogenous and are relatively independent on adult blood meal for oviposition in comparison with the hemipterans.

    • Effect of temperature and host seed species on the fecundity ofCallosobruchus maculatus (F.)

      J Chandrantha J Muthukrishnan S Mathavan

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      Callosobruchus maculatus was reared onVigna unguiculata, Phaseolus radiatus andDolichos lab lab from hatching to death at 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Food consumption, growth and egg production were estimated in terms of energy. At the tested temperatures, host seed species significantly influenced feeding and energy allocated to egg production. Irrespective of the seed species, food consumption decreased with increasing temperature. Energy density of an egg did not vary with seed species but significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Fecundity (egg/females) ofCallosobruchus maculatus ranged from 73 onD. lab lab at 35°C to 118 onVigna unguiculata at 30°C. Energy allocated to egg production at 20°C was more than at other temperatures. A statistically significant inverse relationship exists between overall feeding rate ofCallosobruchus maculatus and energy allocated to egg production.

    • Faecal weight as an index of development rate and energy content of imago of lepidopterous insects

      J Muthukrishnan T J Pandian

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      Statistically significant correlation coefficients were obtained for the relation between defecation rate and development rate as well as energy contents of pupa and imago of the noctuid mothAchaea janata. Using simple regression equations, the dependent variables development rate, pupa and imago were predicted against values of defecation rate obtained in a factorial design of experiment. The predicted and observed values did not significantly differ from each other indicating the possibility of predicting these parameters from easily estimatable faecal weight. The validity of the concept was tested using the data available in literature.

    • Effect of feeding tender and senescent leaf byEupterote mollifera and tender leaf and flower bySpodoptera exigua on food utilization

      M Senthamizhselvan J Muthukrishnan

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      Food consumption and utilization efficiencies ofEupterote mollifera fed on tender leaf were higher than those of counterparts ingesting senescent leaf, while inSpodoptera litura individuals fed on flower showed higher values in comparison to those that consumed tender leaf. Food utilization parameters of these insects depend upon the nutritional quality of the food.

    • Nitrogen budget ofCallosobruchus maculatus larva developing in different host seed species

      J Chandrakantha S Mathavan J Muthukrishnan

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      Studies on effect of seed species and their interacting influence on food utilization ofCallosobruchus maculatus clearly pointed out that rates and efficiencies of nitrogen utilization are determined by the composition of the seed also. Of the 3 species of seeds tested,Vigna unguiculata has significantly more nitrogen and water per unit weight than the other two seeds,Dolichos lab lab andPhaseolus radiatus. With increasing nitrogen content of the seed, rates of feeding, assimilation and metabolism decreased. On the other hand efficiencies of assimilation and net production increased. Nitrogen assimilation efficiency ofCallosobruchus maculatus ranged from 76·6% inDolichos lab lab to 85·8% inVigna unguiculata. The efficiency of accumulation of assimilated nitrogen was around 82%. The less nutritiousDolichos lab lab contributed more to the observed variance in the efficiencies of assimilation and production. The low efficiencies may be attributed to the presence of protease inhibitors.

    • Bioenergetics in insect-plant interactions

      J Muthukrishnan

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      Homeostatic mechanisms involving the regulation of the rates and efficiency of food consumption and utilization are reviewed. Adjustment in the rates and efficiencies of consumption and utilization of food during switching on from one host plant to another as well as the compensatory tactics among the consumer species are discussed.

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