The adrenal glands of the south Indian female gerbil,Tatera indica cuvierii (Waterhouse) exhibited seasonal changes in their weight, histology and histochemistry during different months of the year. Seasonal changes seen in the adrenal glands also correlate with that of changes in the ovary. The cortical cells of the zona fasiculata and zona reticularis in the adrenal glands of sexually active gerbils show decrease in cell as well as nuclear sizes during quiescent period (April–July). The zona glomerulosa and medulla do not show any changes in their structure during different reproductive phases. Histochemically, the zona fasiculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal glands of the gerbils accumulate abundant lipids and carbohydrates during breeding period, when compared with quiescent females. The ‘X’ zone shows fluctuation and is present in the mature, pregnant and spayed females and disappears in parous and quiescent gerbils. It is inferred that a relatively unchanged secretion of mineralocorticoids, an increased or decreased secretion of glucocorticoids required to maintain the functional status of adrenal cortex could be possible in gerbils during the reproductive cycle.