E T Haridass
Articles written in Proceedings – Animal Sciences
Volume 89 Issue 4 July 1980 pp 387-402
The predatory behaviour of three reduviids, the millipede-feeding
Volume 89 Issue 5 September 1980 pp 457-466
Legs of Reduviidae show modifications and specialised structures adapted for their predatory habits and efficient prey capture. The variable forelegs of these insects apparently reflect the correlation between the structure of the legs and the types of prey. The tibial pads or fossula spongiosa are a common feature in the forelegs or fore- and midlegs of most of subfamilies of Reduviidae. The functional morphology of the tibial pads of the forelegs of three insects,
Volume 90 Issue 4 July 1981 pp 483-493
Anatomical and histological studies of the alimentary organs of sixteen reduviids, with diverse food habits indicate structural variations. The terminal part of the tubular second midgut of these predaceous insects has a permanent sac-like region with distinct histology, concerned with absorption of digested food. In addition, the digestive system is characterised by a reduced pylorus with pyloric-intestinal and pyloric-rectal valves, surrounded by flask-shaped ampullae of the four malpighian tubules. The ampullary cells with their filamentous apices and with fibrillar cytoplasmic processes are concerned with. water absorption. Commonly in all these terrestrial insects, the anterior end of the rectum also bears a well-developed, inverted cup-like rectal gland, the cells of which also absorb water from the excreta stored in the impermeable, intima lined rectum. Members of Ectrichodiinae show simple ampullary cells and a unique rectum, reported for the first time among reduviids with scattered dome-shaped glandular cells as found in Homoptera and in some phytophagous Heteroptera. The simple nature of the alimentary organs indicates its primitive organization within the reduviid subfamilies.
Volume 94 Issue 3 June 1985 pp 239-247
Feeding behavioural studies of many exclusively predatory species exhibit clearcut stimuli-response mediated sequences and these can be categorised into distinct sub-units like: search and location of prey → approach and attack of prey → immobilisation of prey → transportation of prey to safe place → consumption of prey. These feeding behavioural activities differ among reduviids particularly with respect to prey types. These bugs are endowed with many structural, physiological and behavioural adaptations for efficient predation.
The ovipositional behaviour of reduviids in different habitats also shows considerable variation and their reproductive strategies include selection of suitable sites to assure successful emergence and development of young ones and so far very few egg predators and egg parasites have been reported for these terrestrial insects.
Volume 94 Issue 5 October 1985 pp 533-545
Eggs of Piratinae are unique among reduviids in possessing stellate chorionic filaments that remain exposed even after the insertion of the egg into the ground. These eggs have developed many structures for supplying ambient oxygen to the developing embryo inside them. The ultrastructure of the chorion, the operculum and the aeromicropylar system of the eggs of seven species of piratinae bugs are reported.
Volume 95 Issue 2 April 1986 pp 237-246
The harpactorine eggs, laid in clusters and covered by spumaline secretions, are distinguished from the eggs of other reduviid subfamilies by the elaborate net-work-like chorionic collar extensions and opercular outgrowths. The collar extensions may be short with spongy structure, or considerably long with honeycomb structure terminating in filamentous apices. The body of the egg has prominent follicular markings and the anterior end is marked by a distinct collar having the spermatic groove, aero-micropylar openings and the sealing bar. The chorionic collar extensions and the opercular outgrowths, along with the aero-micropylar systems and the inner aerostatic layer, efficiently transport atmospheric oxygen to the interior of the eggs. The ultrastructure of the chorion, the operculum and the aero-micropylar system of 5 species of harpactorine bugs from Southern India is reported.
Volume 95 Issue 4 July 1986 pp 447-456
Eggs of Triatominae and Echtrichodiinae, though identical, present distinct ultrastructural diversities in respect of collar rim, follicular pattern, position and distribution of the aero-micropylar system and the operculum, facilitating easy identification of the eggs of the species of the subfamilies. Possessing as they do, a continuous endochorionic aerostatic layer for supplying ambient oxygen to the developing embryos, they simulate other reduviid eggs. While the eggs of Triatominae are comparatively simple, being laid in exposed habitats, those of Echtrichodiinae possess additional opercular respiratory structures in view of their oviposition in specialised habitats.
Volume 96 Issue 5 September 1987 pp 485-497
The feeding behaviour exhibited by the different subfamilies of Reduviidae is distinctly correlated with the specific prey types involved. Important adaptive modifications are seen associated with their methods of prey capture and feeding. Based on the analyses of feeding behaviour, reduviids may be grouped as (i) ‘blood feeding’ type, (ii) ‘sticky-trap’ type, (iii) ‘raptorial’ type, (iv) ‘wait and grab’ type, (v) ‘pin and jab’ type and (vi) ‘chase and pounce’ type. The oviposition methods are highly varied in Reduviidae and it is possible to assign group characteristics, but the ultrastructure of the eggs, particularly those of chorionic collar extensions and the operculum, indicate subfamily resemblance. The usefulness of feeding and reproductive behaviours and the egg ultrastructure in the biosystematics of Reduviidae are discussed.
Volume 97 Issue 1 January 1988 pp 41-48
The pin and jab type of predatory behaviour of
Volume 97 Issue 1 January 1988 pp 49-54
Eggs of Rhaphidosomatinae share with the eggs of other subfamilies, several characters common to Reduviidae. The chorion with simple follicle cells, short, highly porous collar rim, 6 micropyles and the operculum with a central highly porous conical disc are characters to distinguish the eggs of this from other reduviid subfamilies. The ultrastructural details of the chorion, the operculum, and the aero-micropylar system of the eggs of