The pollution studies of four rivers of Western Uttar Pradesh with reference to biological indices are reported. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the river water at 16 sampling points have been studied and the correlation between them have been made. It is observed that the species number (n) and the total number of organisms (N) of the phytoplankton and zooplankton, though exhibit a relationship at certain stretch with the increase or decrease of pollution intensity yet it is not found very specific and so no definite conclusions could be made. However, the quantitative and qualitative changes in the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates are clear and specific. Benthic production is observed lower at the points having BOD below 20 mg/l, perhaps because of low availability of food, while at 110 mg/l BOD the highest benthic production (547 per Ekman grab) was observed and this may be due to the presence of good amount of food. Further, the species number (n) and organism number (N) of benthic fauna decline very much and finally disappear completely with the increase of BOD i.e. more than 310 mg/l or with the disappearance of DO (dissolved oxygen).