• Volume 85, Issue 6

      June 1977,   pages  369-443

    • Hematology of a cat fishRita rita (Ham)

      K C Pandey A K Pandey

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      The paper deals with hematology ofRita rita (Ham.). The immature erythrocytes include polychromatic cells and erythroblasts. The atypical cells consist of macrocytes. The WBC are represented by lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, hemoblasts and thrombocytes: the basophils and macrophages are absent. Total RBC and WBC counts are higher in specimen with higher weight and length. Further, the male fishes have higher total RBC counts. The hemoglobin content is higher in male fishes and specimens with higher weight and length. The packed cell volume and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are found to be 31·0 mm and 3·1 mm respectively.

    • Placentation in the Rutaceae

      P M Nene V D Tilak

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      The vascular supply to the ovary of ten plants belonging to nine genera of the Rutaceae is described. The location of the fused carpellary ventrals of the same carpels opposite the loculi inRavenia spectabilis andLuvunga eleutherandra indicates that it is same as in the case of plants with an axile type of placentation. The septal position of the fused carpellary ventrals of adjacent carpels in plants likeGlycosmis pentaphylla, Feronia limonia andAtalantia monophylla is suggestive of its being of an anatomically parietal type, though morphologically axile. In the remaining five plants,i.e., Ruta graveolens, Murraya paniculata, andM. Koenigii, Citrus medica var.limomum andAegle marmelos, the condition is intermediate between anatomically axile and parietal types. In conclusion it may be said that the family shows a general trend for attaining a parietal type of placentation from an axile type, as in the allied taxa like the Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, Vitaceae and the Zygophyllaceae.

    • Seasonal, size and comparative study of plasma proteins of four airbreathing freshwater fishes

      Neena Siddiqui

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      Seasonal variations in total protein, albumin, globulin, fibrinogen in the blood plasma ofClarias batrachus (L.) showed a well defined cycle. Feeding intensity and spawning were found to have marked influence on the plasma proteins. In summer, when fishes were fully ripe protein concentration was low. It appears that major part of the protein is diverted towards gonad formation. High values in the month of March and April indicates higher metabolic activity of fishes in these months. Protein contents were also found to change with the increase of fish size. The increase is found to be associated with the changing dietary habit of the fish. Plasma proteins also vary widely from species to species.

    • Post-pollination studies in some Cyperaceae

      B H M Nijalingappa

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      Post-pollination details in five species of Cyperaceae (Eleocharis atropurpurea, E. congesta, Fimbristylis tetragona, Fuirena trilobites andScirpus lateriflorus) are described. The course of development is uniform in all the species with a few exceptions. Double fertilization is synchronous, endosperm is nuclear and the development of embryo is of the Onagrad type. The topographic relations of the epicotyl and the cotyledon conform to the Haccius’ concept of the monocotyledonous embryo. Pericarp remains free from the seed coat throughout the development.

    • Anatomical studies on certain members of Aizoaceae

      S Bhambie M C Joshi M L Gupta

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      The present work incorporates the results of anatomical studies on eight members of Aizoaceae. The nodal configurations are: (1) unilacunar one trace-Mollugo cerviana, M. nudicaulis, Gisekia pharnaceoides, Glinus lotoides andOrygia decumbens; (2) unilacunar two trace—Trianthema triquetra; (3) trilacunar three trace-Zaleya govindia andTrianthema portulacastrum. In a reinvestigation of the general vegetative structure, normal secondary growth has been found to occur inGisekia andMollugo and anomalous secondary growth in the species ofTrianthema, Zaleya, Orygia andGlinus. The abnormal secondary growth met with in roots may be attributed to the perennating habit of these plants. A unique type of secondary xylem arrangement in the form of a spiral occurs in certain roots ofZaleya andTrianthema. An explanation of its origin has been given.

    • Environmental restraints on the food intake, growth and conversion efficiency ofGambusia affinis: influence of Living space

      Katre Shakuntala S Ravichandra Reddy

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      Food intake, growth and conversion efficiency of juvenileGambusia affinis are considerably influenced by the volume of water available per fish. On an ‘ad libitum’ diet ofTubifex tubifex worms, juveniles reared in intermediate amounts of “living space” of 500 and 800 ml water per 4 individuals, exhibited maximum growth and conversion efficiency. Both below and beyond these volumes of water, the above parameters decreased indicating the inhibitory influence of ‘limited’ as well as ‘abundant’ living space on the food conversion of the fish.

    • Pharmacognostical studies on the root ofApama siliquosa Lamk. (Aristolochiaceae)

      Z Mary S N Yoganarasimhan J K Pattanshetty R C Nayar

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      The roots ofApama siliquosa Lamk. have many medicinal virtues. The correct nomenclature and botanical description of the taxon along with pharmacognostical details of the root and the diagnostic features of the drug are described with suitable illustrations.

    • Rhizosphere and geocarposphere mycoflora of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn)

      P Subrahmanyam A S Rao

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      This study was undertaken to determine the influence of season (Kharif vs.Rabi) and moisture (irrigatedvs. rainfed condition) on groundnut rhizosphere and geocarposphere mycoflora. Fungal populations were always higher in rhizosphere than in geocarposphere while the geocarposphere populations always exceeded those populations in the field soil. Peaks in rhizosphere populations were found when the plants were at flowering stage and again at maturity. Geocarposphere populations showed only a slight increase with age until the plants were 90 days old and then rose rapidly until harvest. Qualitative differences appear to be related to temperature and soil moisture condition (as influenced by irrigation) inKharif andRabi season crops.Penicillium spp. were the most dominant group inKharif but disappeared inRabi. Aspergillus spp. were the second dominant group inKharif. A. flavus and otherAspergillus spp. were the most dominant fungi inRabi. Fusarium spp.,Macrophomina phaseolina, members of nucorales andTrichoderma spp., were the subdominant groups inKharif. Fusarium spp., were more dominant inRabi than inKharif. M. phaseolina was equally dominant in both seasons. Qualitative differences between field soil, rhizosphere and geocarposphere as also between irrigated and rainfed plots ofKharif were not marked. Populations were always higher inKharif than inRabi. The fungi which were found as dominants in geocarposphere were also found as dominants or subdominants in shells and kernels of developing pods in that season. Potentially plant pathogenic fungi isolated from field soil, rhizosphere and geocarposphere and plant parts were tested for pathogenicity on groundnut plants.

    • Fungal infection of groundnut pods and aflatoxin accumulation before harvest

      P Subrahmanyam A S Rao

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      Shells and kernels of groundnut were examined for fungal infection from plants of 60 days old up to harvest time in 1971 and 1972Kharif and 1972 and 1973Rabi seasons. Most of the shells and kernels were found to be free from fungi during the early stages of crop development. However, as the crop matures the percentage of shells and kernels infected by fungi increased and at final samplings almost all the shells were infected by fungi. InKharif, the percentage of shells infected with fungi was higher and the rate of infection was also rapid, while it was lower inRabi. The rate of shell infection was higher in rainfed plots than in irrigated plots. The rate of kernel infection was higher inKharif than inRabi. Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium citrinum, P. jenseni, Aspergillus flavus were found as dominants on shells inKharif. InRabi season,M. phaseolina andA. flavus were found as dominant fungi whileP. citrinum P. jenseni andTrichoderma spp. were absent.Fusarium spp. andAspergillus spp. appeared as subdominants.M. phaseolina andFusarium spp. were found as dominant fungi on kernels in bothRabi andKharif seasons.A. flavus was the most dominant fungus on kernels inRabi but subdominant in 1972Kharif season. It appeared as dominant in 1971Kharif. P. citrinum andP. jenseni were absent inRabi season.Aspergillus spp. were found as subdominants inRabi season. Aflatoxin accumulation was found to be more in rainfed plots than in irrigated plots. Aflatoxin formation was negligible inRabi season. Kernels from damaged pods had higher levels of toxin content than kernels from sound pods.

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