• Volume 83, Issue 1

      January 1976,   pages  1-45

    • Feeding activity of the millipede,Jonespeltis splendidus Verhoeff and soil humification

      Kubra Bano D J Bagyaraj R V Krishnamoorthy

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      The ingestion of soil by the millipedeJonespeltis splendidus was studied under laboratory conditions. The feeding and excretory rates followed a diurnal rhythm with a peak of feeding and excretory activity during the morning hours of the day. The millipede consumes the soil, assimilates most of its organic matter and defaecates the soil along with nitrogenous excretory products. The castings are rich in ammonia. In its movement in the gastrointestinal duct, the soil becomes humified; the excrements contain more humus than in the ingested soil. The stomodaeal region of the gut has a rich bacterial population while the proctodaeal region has a rich fungal population. When the fungal isolates of the gut are incubated with soil, humification of the soilin vitro occurred. The bacterial isolates of the gut failed to humify the soil. The surface and feeding activity of the millipedes under field conditions showed a peak activity at about 8 a.m. Under laboratory conditions, well-fed individuals survived for 21 days but starved individuals started dying from the 5th day onwards.

    • Studies on Indian Cercariae - III. Virgulate plagiorchioid Cercariae

      A S Murty

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      Three new species of virgulate plagiorchioid cercariaeviz., Cercariae indicae LXVII, LXVIII and LXIX are described in this paper. The number of penetration glands inCercariae indicae LXVII is three pairs, while in the other two species it is four pairs.

    • Effects of fumigants on the water loss inPeriplaneta americana (L.)

      S S Bhatia

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      Factors influencing water loss inPeriplaneta americana (L.) treated with vapours of some selected fumigants have been investigated. Ventilation of fumigated roaches does not control transpiration. The enhanced duration of opening of the spiracles causes an increased water loss in the fumigated insects. Water loss is also dependent upon the molecular weights of the compounds in a chemical series.

    • Musculature of the pelvic region ofUperodon systoma (Schn.)

      Venkatesh Narain Shukla

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      The skeleton and the musculature of the pelvic region has been studied in detail inUperodon systoma (Schn.), so as to understand the diversity in structure in relation to the functional demands.

      The pelvic girdle is characterised by the absence of the iliac crest and the presence of an anteriorly placed cartilago-iliac appendage.

      The ilia do not articulate firmly with the sacrum, but their anterior extremities along with the cartilago-iliac appendages lie beneath the sacral diapophyses, thus providing flat surfaces for the sacro-iliac joint.

      The processus superior, due to the absence of the iliac crest, is present as a prominent protuberance on the dorsal side of the ala.

      The ilia participate neither in the formation of spina pelvis anterior nor in the spina pelvis posterior.

      The pubes in some older specimens show a little ossification.

      The ischia bear a small protuberance on its outer ventral border adjacent to the pubes.

      The tibio-fibula bears at its proximal end an oval deep notch—the cruris notch for the condyle of the fcmur. This joint does not allow full stretchening of the hind limb.

      A rudimentary spina ossis coccygealis is present on the dorsal surface of the urostyle.

      The ilio-lumbaris has a spreaded origin partly from the ilium and mainly from the dorso-lateral surface of the cartilago-iliac appendage.

      The iliacus externus, due to the absence of the iliac crest, originates from almost whole of the dorsal and dorso-lateral surfaces of the ala.

      The iliacus internus consists of two portions—the portio I and portio II.

      The triceps femoris consists of two portions—the caput anticum orM. cruralis and the caput posticum orM. glutaeus magnus.

      The are four distinct muscles comparable with those reported by Gaupp5 inRana esculenta in place of three described by Devanesen9. As such, the three muscles described by Devanesen9 are adductor longus which is the actually the pectineus, pectineus is obturator externus and adductor bravis described by him as a single muscle, consists of two muscles—the gemellus and the quadratus femoris.

      The gracilis minor consists of two distinct parts—the gracilis minor internus and the gracilis minor externus. The latter adheres on the inner surface of the skin of the posterior dorso-ventral side of the thigh.

      The rectus abdominis consists of two portions—the portio internus and the portio externus, originating separately from the ischium. The portio internus has three inscriptio-tendinea. The portio externus adheres on the inner surface of the skin throughout its course.

      The coccygeo-iliacus posterior and coccygeo-cutaneus are present.

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