Volume 70, Issue 2
August 1969, pages 55-110
pp 55-65 August 1969
The paper gives an account of the morphology and anatomy of fruits, seeds and their germination in the genusPhoenix. The fruit is an oblong, 1-seeded berry, yellowish-black to dark purple in colour. The seed is hard and stony, grooved on ventral side. Embryo lies dorsally opposite the groove. Germination is hypogeal, eligulate and remotive.
Many palm fruits and seeds are found in the Tertiary deposits of different countries and are called “Palmocarpon” (Reid and Chandler, 1933). For identifying them, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of fruits and seeds in living genera is essential (Mahabale, 1950). With this aim in view, anatomy of different palms such asNypa, Hyphaene, Sabal, Caryota, Cocos, Licuala, Rhapis, Ptychosperma, Livistona, etc., has been investigated at this Department. The present paper describes the anatomy of fruit in six species ofPhoenix as seen in T.S. passing through the middle part of mature fruit and seed. It was found that fruit and seed anatomy shows many reliable characters which can be used for differentiating species within the genusPhoenix. A key based on them has been given here. In 1914 Berry (1914) described a fossil fruit “Phoenicites occidentalis”. It seems to be closely similar to that inP. dactylifera and large-fruited varieties ofP. sylvestris in point of fruit and seed characters.
pp 66-79 August 1969
Investigations dealing with the maturation and spawning of the Sciaenid,Johnius dussumieri, were carried out to determine the spawning season, spawning periodicity, fecundity and the ponderal index. The growth of the ovaries and the ova and the changes occurring in them in different stages of maturity have been described. Sex composition during different months and the size at first maturity were studied. Spawning seasons based on the monthly analysis of maturity stages of females were determined. With the help of ova-diameter measurements the spawning periodicity was assessed. Fecundity was correlated to total length and weight of the fish. Ponderal index or condition factor was studied in relation to size and spawning seasons.
pp 80-87 August 1969
This paper deals with the chromosome number of 14 species and 30 races of IndianCymbopogon, 5 species are diploid, and 1 diploid, triploid and tetraploid, 3 diploid and tetraploid, 1 diploid and hexaploid, 2 tetraploid and 2 hexaploid only.
pp 88-97 August 1969
pp 98-103 August 1969
pp 104-110 August 1969
1. The anther at maturity shows characteristic fibrous thickening of the endothecium expending to the other parts as well. The pollen is shed at 2-celled stage.
2. The ovule is anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate. The development of embryo-sac conforms toPolygonum type. An abnormal case of twin embryo-sacs has also been recorded.
3. The endosperm is ofCellular type and the embryo is ofCaryoplyllad type showing some variations.