Volume 44, Issue 2
August 1956, pages 57-136
pp 57-60 August 1956
pp 61-67 August 1956
Effect of twenty-eight different nitrogen compounds on dry weight and sporulation ofGlœosporium musarum isolated from bananas,Glœosporium papayœ andColletotrichum papayœ isolated from papayas, was studied in liquid cultures. There was no growth of the three fungi on nitrites of sodium and potassium as well as in complete absence of nitrogen from the medium. All nitrates (except NH4NO3) and majority of organic compounds supported good growth while ammonium salts of inorganic acids and thiourea supported significantly poor growth of all the three fungi.
Results also indicate that the source of nitrogen in the medium exerts dominating influence on the sporulation.d-alanine, urea, acetamide and all nitrates (except NH4NO3) induced good sporulation. Most of the ammonium salts, glycine, glutamic acid, valine, methionine,l-phenyl-alanine,l-leucine,l-aspartic acid and thiourea supported poor to fair sporulation or completely checked it. The number as well as the presence or absence of setæ ofC. papayœ was controlled by the nature of the nitrogen added to the basal medium.
pp 68-72 August 1956
The chemical composition of the shelf water has been investigated and examples of the vertical chemical structure are given in the table. From these values and other related hydrographic information the chemical factors controlling the composition of the shelf water may be discussed.
The range of salinity between surface and bottom was greater during the period of sinking and lower during upwelling. The high values of salinity, phosphate, silicates and oxygen were influenced by upwelling. The advection of Northern Dilute water and Southern Bay of Bengal water also affect the vertical and horizontal chemical structure of the water. These were further modified by planktonic consumption during periods of accelerated production. A detailed report is under preparation.
pp 73-78 August 1956
1. Rats injected with Radium D were treated with vitamin A, calcium salt of EDTA individually and concurrently, to study their effects on the excretion and retention of Radium D.
2. Combined treatment with vitamin A and Ca-EDTA resulted in the excretion of 80·96% of the injected Radium D as compared to 72·80% in Ca-EDTA treated animals. Treatment with vitamin A alone increased the excretion of Radium D from 53·58% in untreated controls to 58·79%.
3. Vitamin A is effective in reducing the retention of Radium D in bones, while Ca-EDTA is more effective in lowering soft-tissue retention of Radium D. When both the agents are used concurrently it is possible to remove a major portion of the deposited Radium D from skeleton as well as from soft-tissues.
4. Further possibilities of increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of the procedure are discussed.
pp 79-84 August 1956
Five hosts have been observed to be parasitised byP. palmivora in nature in Coimbatore. These (excepting one) are new records for India, and South India in particular, where this fungus is known to be very active. The morphological characters and pathogenic ability of the isolates are described. Three of them were homothallic and two heterothallic. It is concluded that all of them are to be included in the same species though some differences could be made out between them. These differences are considered to be not dependable in specific differentiation.
pp 85-90 August 1956
The death of fish in Nagasunni Tank is due to anoxæmia caused by excessive vegetation ofMicrocystis as a result of which reducing and consuming activities overshadowed producing activities, thus upsetting the balance. Sugars do not appear to be the cause of mortality.
pp 91-107 August 1956
1. Making use of supravital and cytological methods, efforts were made to visualise a correct picture of the structure of the Golgi elements and the mitochondria.
2. These two structures were studied in the following three types of cells:—
The epithelial cells from the intestine of the earthworm,Pheretima elongata (Steph.).
The glandular epithelial cells from the digestive diverticula of the mussel,Lamellidens corrianus (Lea).
Phagocytic amœbocytes from the blood of the mussel,Lamellidens corrianus (Lea).
3. The Golgi elements from these different types of cells seemed to consist of the following parts:—
A central chromophobic clear area;
A chromophilic rim (the dicyosome) surrounding the central chromophobic area. This rim appeared to be entire; and
Densely stained granules which may be the “Golgi product,” though no evidence could be brought forward that they arise from the Golgi elements.
4. The mitochondria of these three cells seemed to have the following characteristics:—
Essentially the mitochondria occur in the form of granules;
A few rod-like mitochondria could be made out in the intestinal epithelium of the earthworm, when stained by iron hæmatoxylin;
In the cells of the digestive diverticula of the mussel, some mitochondrial bodies could be made out to have a duplex structure; while
In the amœbocytes of the mussel, the mitochondria occur in the form of a network surrounding the nucleus (and also the Golgi elements).
pp 108-113 August 1956
The effects of 24-hour long photoperiods on one variety of early rice, T.N. 32 (Baljati), given to 10, 20, and 30-day old seedlings for one month have been studied in pot culture experiments. The treatment at all stages brought about a significant delaying effect in ear emergence of the main shoot. The grain yield was higher in 10-day old treated set, with no marked differences in the 20-day set whereas it was considerably depressed in the 30-day set from that of the controls. The higher grain yield was due to a conspicuous increase in the total number of spikelets and grains per panicle.
pp 114-121 August 1956
pp 122-124 August 1956
A study of the type specimen ofMicrotypha saccharicola Speg., the type and the only species of the genusMicrotypha Speg. (1911) has shown that it is congeneric withArthrinium caricicola Kunze ex Fries.Microtypha is accordingly reduced to synonymy withArthrinium Kunze ex Fr. (1832). Regarding the correct name for Spegazzini’s fungus, a new combination inArthrinium with Spegazzini’s specific epithetsaccharicola cannot be made, since such a combination, if proposed, would become a later homonym ofA. saccharicola Stevens (1917) which appears different from Spegazzini’s fungus.Microtypha saccharicola is, therefore, classified inArthrinium asA. spegazzinii nom. nov.
pp 125-129 August 1956
Studies on the conductivity of roots, stems and leaves of cotton plants infected byF. vasinfectum using a Mullard conductivity bridge showed a remarkable fluctuation in the ionic concentration of the tissues prior to the appearance of systemic symptoms (on the 15th day after germination). With the appearance of the symptoms in the leaves, the conductivity in the tissues of the infected plants showed an increase over the healthy, probably due to an accumulation of electrolytes. The possible role of vivotoxin(s) in bringing about permeability changes in the tissues of cotton plants is discussed in the light of spectrochemical analytical figures of ash of infected cotton plants obtained in this laboratory.
pp 130-136 August 1956
Data have been collected on the pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, total and interstitial phosphorus and some of the water-soluble constituents of bottom muds collected from two stations in the Palk Bay Lagoons. The data indicate that the muds are very poor in essential nutrients and undergo drastic changes in their composition as a result of the extreme ecological conditions to which the lagoons are subjected. It is also noticed that the top layers of the mud are richer than the bottom soil and this is highly significant from the point of view of using the lagoons for fish cultivation.