Volume 36, Issue 4
October 1952, pages 135-179
pp 135-147 October 1952
The paper deals with fossil spores and pollen recovered from lignites (Eocene) of the Dandot coalfields, West Punjab (Pakistan). Ten different kinds of spores referred to the form genusTrilites and twenty types of pollen grains, classed underNonaperturites, Monocolpites, Dicolpites, Tricolpites,Tetracolpites, Hexacolpites, Septacolpites, Octacolpites andTriorites, have been described here. Some of the spores resemble those ofOphioglossum falcatum, O. vulgatum, Lycopodium alpinum, Schizostege Lydgatei, Doryopteris decora, Selaginella deflexa; some of the pollen on the other hand compare with those ofPotamogeton natans, Quercus robur, Hedera helix, Olea europœa,Pteropia, Tetraplasandra, Fraxinus americana, Nothofagus cliffortioidis,Lycopus europœus, Belula nana, B. tortuosa andCarpinus betulus. Most of these pollen so far as compared, appear to belong to trees and have a sculptured outer coat which according to some is a sign of zoogamous pollen.
A few of the pollen grains described here, have also been reported from other, probably Eocene strata, like Palana lignites, Eoecne beds of Green river (Colorado, Utah, U.S.A.), Tertiary deposits of Australia and Intertrappean cherts of Mohgaon Kalan, Madhya Pradesh, India.
pp 148-159 October 1952
Equations have been derived interrelating length, weight and oxygen consumption inChanos chanos. The uses which these equations can be put to in the study of the transport of live fish have been discussed in detail.
The need has been pointed out for taking into account the size (especially the weight) effect in interpreting the data on the respiration of fish. While a mere grouping of fish in terms of their length-ranges or number in a given volume of water is not directly helpful in interpreting the experimental results, the factor, ml. (initial) oxygen per gm. fish, can be used with advantage to measure the influence of size on the respiration of the fish and to compare the viability of the fish under different environmental conditions. On the basis of this factor, mortality ofChanos fry in hard tap water is seen to be relatively less than in sea-water; while, under conditions of asphyxiation, the median survival time of the fry does not appear to be affected to any significant extent by the salinity of the medium.
pp 160-168 October 1952
pp 169-179 October 1952
A new species ofStaphylorchis, S. gigas, has been studied and its anatonical features are described. It is the only trematode parasite which has been found to infest the cœlomic cavity of the tiger shark,Galeocerdo tigrinus. Sexually mature specimens are generically identical with the type speciesS. cymatodes (Johnston, 1913; Travassos, 1920) but since there are important specific differences such as the greater size, the form of the excretory system, shape of the ovary and vitellaria and the nature of the male genital end organ, they cannot be referred to the type species and hence described as a separate species. The discovery of this trematode from an Indian shark affords supplementary data concerning the little known genusStaphylorchis, previously found only in an Australian Ray and adds a second species to the genus which supports the validity of the genus.