Volume 22, Issue 5
November 1945, pages 257-327
pp 257-273 November 1945
The present paper describes some fossil remains of the Betulaceæ from collections made by Middlemiss, Stewart and the author from the Lower Karewa Deposits of Kashmir, exposed along the Pir Panjal side of the valley at Liddarmarg, Ningal Nullah and Laredura. The material includes fossil leaves belonging toBetula utilis, Betula alnoides, Betula sp. A (which does not compare with any modern species of the Himalayas),Alnus nepalensis,Alnus nitida and a few female cones ofBetula sp. andAlnus sp. (which could not be determined specifically on account of the fragmentary nature of the specimens); a number of impressions, which favourably compare with thin sheets from the outer bark ofBetula utilis are also present.
Of the four well-determined species, only one(Betula utilis) occurs in the Kashmir Valley at the present time; the other three species, though still occurring in the neighbouring regions, are absent from the Kashmir Valley proper, the northern slopes of the Pir Panjal Range and the southern slopes of the Main Himalayas.
The past and present distribution of the Betulaceæ is briefly discussed.
A comparison of the past and present distribution of the Betulaceæ does not alter the general conclusions, which were derived by the author from the general distribution of the Karewa flora as a whole.
pp 274-278 November 1945
pp 279-298 November 1945
The paper describes about ten species of the Aceraceæ five of which are completely determined; the remaining include four leaf species, which do not match any modern species of the Himalayas; one species,viz.,A. Cæsium is based on a few fragments of fruits, the other bits of samaras could not be specifically determined by comparison with any modern species.
The modern distribution of the Aceraceæ brings to light the absence from the Kashmir Valley of three species(A. oblongum, A. pentapomicum andA. villosum) which occur in the fossil state in the Karewa beds. However, the other two species, namelyA. Cæsium andA. pictnm are important constituents of the broad-leaved forests of the Valley as well as the northern slopes of the Pir Panjal Range. The modern distribution of the fossil species in the Himalayan regions is given together with their different associates in different types of forests.
A comparison of the modern maple forests of the Kashmir Valley with those of the Pleistocene period shows that the oaks and laurels, which must have occurred during the Pleistocene in association with maples, are altogether absent from the valley at the present time. This fact shows that the climate of the valley has changed since the early Pleistocene times.
The inclusion in the fossil flora of the Aceraceæ does not alter the general conclusions already expressed by the author regarding the changes of climate and altitude of the Valley since the early Pleistocene times.
pp 299-302 November 1945
Osteometric evaluation of the maximum and minimum diameters of the head, and of the maximum width of the lower end of femur in 185 fresh adult, Punjabi femora (146 male and 39 female) seems to point to a method of determining sex from these bones which could be employed with advantage by medico-legal workers. Although the series presented is small and does not admit of wide generalisations the following conclusions appear obvious:-
The Punjabi femora with minimum and/or maximum diameters of the head above 44 mm. and the width of the lower end above 70 mm. belong to males.
In the case of females the corresponding diameters are below 40 mm. and 66 mm. respectively.
The bones with measurements of the head lying between 40 mm. and 44 mm. and of the lower end between 66 mm. and 70 mm. may be of either sex. In such cases other sexual features in these bones would have to be considered for determining the sex.
pp 303-312 November 1945
pp 313-322 November 1945
pp 323-327 November 1945