• Volume 22, Issue 3

September 1945,   pages  87-217

• Some fossil leaves of the salicace“ from Ningal Nullah and Laredura, Pir Panjal, with a note on the significance of temperate species in the Pleistocene flora of Kashmir

1. Nine fossil species of the Salicaceæ are described from leaf impressions among the material collected partly by R. R. Stewart in 1936 and partly by the author in 1940 from a few spots from the Ningal Nullah locality lying near Botapathri at an elevation of 9,000 ft. above sea-level; the strata are exposed on a wide grassy meadow on the right bank of Ningal Nullah stream. The fossiliferous beds belong to the Lower Karewa Series and are Pleistocene in Age.

2. Of the nine species described in this paper there are four, namely,Salix Wallichiana, S. denticulata, Populus ciliata andP. nigra var.fastigiaia which are fully determined, the remaining five incompletely determined species include three belonging toSalix, which could not be identified specifically on account of the fragmentary nature of the plant material; and two distinct species ofPopulus, that do not seem to resemble any modern Himalayan species.

3. All the fully determined species are represented in the modern flora of the Kashmir Valley, andSalix Wallichiana occurs at the present time in temperate parts of the Himalayas from Kurram Valley (alt. 10–12,000 ft.) through Kashmir to as far east as Garhwal (alt. 12,500 ft.), Nepal and Bhutan. It also occurs in moist places in the inner dry valleys of Pangi and Kagan.Salix denticulata is commonly found in the north-western Himalayas extending eastwards also like the first species, from the Kurram Valley to Western Nepal.Populus ciliata, the common Himalayan poplar, also grows in temperate regions between the altitudes of 4,000 and 10,000 ft., from the Kagan Valley through Kashmir to Bhutan.Populus nigra, var.fastigiata which is wild in Kabul is believed to be cultivated at the present time in the Western Himalayas up to the altitude of 12,500 ft.

4. A comparison of the past and present distribution of the well determined fossil species, which are still growing in the Kashmir Valley near the fossiliferous region at the present time indicates that this part of the valley, at least, at one time during the Pleistocene had probably enjoyed a temperate climate essentially similar to modern climate of the valley, and this would have allowed the growth of temperate species likeJuglons regia,Rhamnus purpurea, Prunus cornuta, Pyrus Malus, Acer Cœsium, etc., all of which are the present as well as the past associates of the Salicaceæ.

5. Though the terrestrial element of this flora as a whole does not indicate in clear terms that the uplift of the fossiliferous beds had taken place after their deposition, the presence among them of an aquatic element represented by a leaf fragment ofNelumbo nucifera, and some parallel-veined leaf fragments comparable to modern species ofSparganium andTypha, shows beyond doubt that the beds had been uplifted by the Pleistocene Himalayan Orogenies.

6. While discussing the significance of temperate species in this flora it is pointed out that the other two floras discovered at Laredura and Liddarmarg indicate a prevalence in the valley, during the Pleistocene, of tropical or sub-tropical climate opposed to a cooler climate indicated by the Ningal Nullah species.

7. The causes of the occurrence during the Pleistocene of three different floras on the northern slopes of the Pir Panjal Range of that time contemporaneously at three localities are also hinted at but a fuller discussion of this question is reserved for a later occasion.

• The corpus luteum inChiloscyllium griseum (Mull. and Henle)

1. The fully formed corpus luteum inChiloscyllium griseum is a simple hollow structure. The hypertrophied follicular epithelium, the membrana propria, the theca and the endothelium constitute the wall of the corpus luteum.

2. The luteal cells are derived exclusively from the follicular epithelial cells.

3. The theca does not show any differentiation into theca interna and theca externa. It exhibits an approach to the mammalian condition in regard to the ingrowth of connective tissue theca into the follicular epithelium and the invasion of blood vessels along with the thecal ingrowths.

4. Degeneration sets in early and the corpus luteum has only a short duration of functional activity.

• The mode of action of drugs on unstriated muscle and the nature of inhibition

1. Both adrenaline and acetylcholine produce contraction of unstriated muscle in the electrolyte-free medium, suggesting that their action is due to mobilisation of ions within the fibres.

2. They also produce contractions or inhibitions resembling those produced by ions outside the fibres; this suggests that they may also act by sensitising the muscle to ions outside.

3. Acetylcholine produces two kinds of contractions in the unstriated muscle.

5. Adrenaline inhibition is antagonised by potassium, ammonium, electric current, hydrogen ions, and increase in osmotic pressure; it is potentiated by calcium, hydrogen ions, and also by electric current. Adrenaline thus produces two kinds of inhibitions.

6. Eserine acts by means other than combining with choline-esterase.

7. Ephedrine potentiates adrenaline also by a process of summation.

8. Drugs produce a contraction, which is a class by itself.

9. The optimum temperature for adrenaline inhibition is 30°

• Physico-chemical aspects of the application of mercury towards preservation of stored food grains

Different mercury preparations—amalgams, porous strips and dispersions—have been studied with a view to measure their efficiency in preserving stored grains from insect attack. Out of the different preparations studied in this investigation mercury dispersions are the most efficient.

In copper amalgam only about 14·5% of mercury is available for vapourisation. Only very small quantity of mercury is required for preservation of grain. It is possible to preserve grain at the rate of 8 grams of mercury for one ton of grain stored in a space of 1,800 cu.ft. under suitable conditions.

Mercurous chloride, a non-poisonous compound of mercury, has been also found to be useful for preserving grain.

Since mercury is acting as a fumigant all conditions which increase the efficiency of fumigants in preserving grains would also be applicable to mercury.

• The development and sporogony of a CoccidianMyriospora Gopalai n.sp., parasitic in the gut of the polychÆteCirratulus filiformis Keferstein

1. The development and sporogony of a new Coccidian,Myriospora gopalai n.sp., are described, from the gut of a polychæteCirratulus filiformis.

2. Merozoites are large and elongated with characteristic siderophil bodies at one end.

3. Microgametocyte is long and cylindrical producing 60–80 microgametoblasts. Each microgametoblast develops independently, forming 6–8 crescent-shaped biflagellate male gametes.

4. The females are shorter and broader than the males.

5. The chromosome number during microgametogenesis and in the nuclear division of the oocyst is haploid and it is believed that the diploid number is restored at the time of fertilisation. The first zygotic division is probably a reduction division.

6. Oocysts are ovoidal with a characteristic thickening of the wall at one end. 8–16 Sporocysts are formed by each oocyst. Sporocysts are polyzoic containing 24–32 sporozoites.

7. Schizogony was not observed and this question is discussed.

8. The systematic position of the genusMyriospora Lermantoff is discussed and it is pointed out that the criterion of the oocyst structure alone cannot be emphasised in separating the polysporocystid Eimeriid genera.

• Loimos secundus (Monogenea, trematoda) from the gills of the common Indian dog-fish (Scoliodon sorrakowah

• The influence of chemical manures upon ‘white rot ’ ofAllium

1. High potash manuring showed some decrease in the attack ofSclerotium cepivorum on onions. This diminished attack appears to run parallel with greater resistance of the bulb tissues to invasion.

2. There was an indication from plot experiments that liming reduced considerably more the amount of ‘white rot’ of onion seedlings than the potash manuring.

3. The average weight of onion bulbs was considerably affected by different manurial treatments. On sandy light land, nirtogenous manuring showed a marked increase in the weight and size of the bulbs.

• Diseases ofPan (Piper betle) in Sylhet, Assam - V.Sclerotial Wilt

Sclerotial wilt ofpan (Piper betle, Lin.) due toSclerotium rolfsi Sacc. is a serious disease and occurs in villages Purangaon, Phulbari, Faua, Erangabaj and Kumrakapan. The percentage of mortality has been found to vary from 4 to 31 in the different villages.

The syptoms of the disease have been described. The incidence of the disease has been studied and it has been found that the disease appears during the middle or later part of May and continues to be vigorous during the later part of June and whole of July. From the first or second week of August the rate of death of plants gradually falls off and the disease ceases by the first week of September.

Inoculation experiments have been carried out with the pure culture of the fungus and its pathogenicity established. It has been found that the sclerotia fail to infect the plants if they are buried three or more inches deep in the soil. Infection is rapid when the sclerotia lie on the surface or an inch below. Infection is delayed when they are buried two inches deep.

• Diseases ofPan (Piper betle) in Sylhet, Assam - Part VI.Gloeosporium leaf-spot

A leaf-spot ofpan (Piper betle Lin.) has been found widespread and occurs throughout thepan-growing tracts.

The symptoms of the disease have been described.

The causal organism has been identified to be the conidial stage of the fungusGlomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. and V. Schrenk and its pathogenicity has been established.

The fungus is disseminated by wind, rain and water passing over the lesions and survives on dead vines and leaves lying in the plantations.

The disease can be controlled by clean cultivation, destruction of dead leaves and vines and the spraying of the plants by 2:2:50 Bordeaux mixture or Perenox.

• The natural occurrence of ergot in South India—II

Ergot was observed onPanicum maximum at Coimbatore, onThemeda cymbaria at Kodaikanal and onDigitaria Wallichiana at Kodaikanal and at Ootacamund. The conidial and sclerotial measurements are given. These are new records of hosts forClaviceps. Claviceps viridis onOplismenus compositus was recorded from Yercaud also.

• Cytological studies in palmæ - Part I. Chromosome numbers in a few species of palms of British India and Ceylon

A study has been made of the root-tip chromosomes of 30 species of Palmæ spread over 23 genera.

From a study of the frequency of the chromosome numbers, for the investigated members of this family, it is suggested that 16 is the primary base number and two secondary base numbers, 14 and 18 were derived due to fusion and fragmentation of some of the chromosomes.

The question of speciation is also discussed for some of the members of the family.

• Sub-groups of A and AB human blood - With particular reference to distribution of A1 A2 BO system of blood in Indians

1. The data consist of 1169 individuals, including 1069 Indians and 100 Europeans, typed for A1A2BO system and classified according to their caste, community or race. The ratio$$\left( {\frac{{A_2 + A_2 B}}{{A_1 + A_1 B}}} \right)$$ gives an interesting anthropological hierarchy.

2. A protocol of the experiment to locate an individual of group A2 is given. The technique of preparing the absorbed sera and the method of testing the sub-groups are given in deteail.

3. The data are analysed statistically by estimating the gene-frequencies and calculating the values ofX2. The values ofX2 are in no case significant showing that the data are homogeneous.

4. A method of representing graphically the gene-frequenciesp1, p2,q andr is suggested.

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