Volume 14, Issue 3
September 1941, pages 201-340
pp 201-234 September 1941
pp 235-249 September 1941
The author describes in detail the mechanism for the occlusion of the corselet orifices inLissemys punctata punctata. The following features described by him are new:
The marginals, unlike those inLissemys punctata granosa, are reduced to five. They are <-shaped, but differ amongst themselves in the relative development of the two arms.
The so-called ‘callosities’ on the plastron are not real callosities, but representextra-plastral plates, belonging perhaps to theepithecal layer of Versluys.
The lines of movement in the shell are described in detail and it is shown that there are six mobile parts.
The prenucho-nuchal connection is ligamental in all individuals up to 215 mm. in carapace length, but becomes sutural later on.
The nuchal shows a transverse groove at the anterior border of its ventral surface and two wing-like projections. The groove serves to accommodate a muscle, themusculus nucho-prenuchalis, not described before, while the lateral projections serve for the origin of a muscle inserted on the plastron.
The prenuchal lobe is moved by thenucho-prenuchalis muscle, not hitherto described.
The mechanism of the anterior plastral lobe has been studied. It is found that its closure is effected partly by cutaneous tension, but mainly by a new muscle, themusculus nucho-epiplastralis.
The femoral valves possess a cartilage inside and are connected to the shank by a ligament, not so far known. The closing of these valves is effected by the drawing in of this ligament during the retraction of the leg.
The tail is extremely short and is very feebly retractile.
A peculiar muscle—M. margino-infracaudalis—arises from the last pair of marginals and is inserted on the infra-caudal valve. This is responsible for the closure of the caudal orifice.
pp 250-255 September 1941
pp 256-260 September 1941
pp 261-270 September 1941
The discordant lead ratios of uranium and thorium minerals gave rise to a number of unsuccessful but interesting ideas to explain them. A fresh attempt has been made here based on the alteration of radioactive minerals. The alteration of a radioactive mineral is distinguished from its transformation to the metamict state. The latter is entirely caused by physical agencies, whereas the presence of solution is essential for altering a mineral. Such a solution may exert (1) a solvent action; or (2) chemically react with a mineral; (3) sorption of substance from the solution as well as (4) ion exchange may take place. Each of these possibilities has been considered individually.
In (4) the supposition is made that part of lead in the radioactive minerals is present as plumbate just as uranium is partly present as uranate.Silica present in percolating waters as silicate may displace plumbate and uranate ions. This idea successfully explains (1) the high lead ratio obtained from altered uranium minerals, (2) low lead ratios from all altered minerals containing small quantities of uranium, (3) the alteration of uraninites, and (4) theraison d’etre of the “silica test” for the freshness of titano-tantalo-columbates.
Reasons are given for the belief that age indications of slightly altered monazites may be reliable, that the presence of alkalies in a primary radioactive mineral is a sign of its alteration, and that the process of alteration as considered here is a general one and applicable to non-radioactive minerals as well.
Holmes’ selective leaching hypothesis, Kirsch’s idea of magmatic rejuvenation to explain erratic lead ratios of Moss bröggerites and the idea of possible presence of common lead in radioactive minerals have been discussed and found unacceptable.
pp 271-276 September 1941
pp 277-309 September 1941
A study is presented of two hundred normal electrocardiograms of subjects from the second, third, fourth and fifth decades of life. Each decade of life is represented by twenty-five male and twenty-five female subjects.
The various deflections and “intervals” of the normal electrocardiogram are measured, described and analysed. Variations due to age and sex are studied.
The results of the investigation are briefly presented in tabular form. (See Tables XXIX and XXX.)
It is with very great pleasure that I acknowledge my indebtedness to the Trustees of the late Sir Ratan Tata for a medical research grant, which has made possible the present investigation. I am also grateful to my patients, friends and medical students for thier kind co-operation and patience in the collection of the electrocardiographic material for this study.
pp 310-338 September 1941
Infantile Cirrhosis is a disease found to a greater extent amongst the children of the vegetarian and to a lesser extent in the non-vegetarian families. The disease is not met with amongst the Muslims and the Europeans.
There are two factors in the ætiology of the disease; cow’s milk andB. coli infection. Cow’s milk brings about the predisposing factor—viz., gastro-intestinal disorder and devitalization of the liver—andB. coli the cirrhotic changes in the liver.
The pathological condition of the blood indicates an increase of leucocytes with lymphocytes predominating. The blood sugar is low and blood urea is normal.
Jaundice is present in a few cases only and this complication arises as a result of obstruction to bile capillaries in later stages of the disease.
The morbid anatomy of the liver presents a picture ofportal cirrhosis. The clinical condition of the disease as well as the histological features of the liver fulfil the criteria of portal or Lænnec’s cirrhosis.
It is suggested that the nomenclature of the disease should be ‘Infantile Cirrhosis’ and not ‘Infantile biliary Cirrhosis’.
pp 339-340 September 1941