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      Volume 43, Issue 1

      January 2018

    • Deciphering the flow structure of Czochralski melt using Partially Averaged Navier–Stokes (PANS) method


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      Czochralski melt flow is an outcome of complex interactions of centrifugal, buoyancy, coriolis and surface tension forces, which act at different length and time scales. As a consequence, the characteristic flow structures that develop in the melt are delineated in terms of recirculating flow cells typical of rotating Benard–Marangoni convection. In the present study, Partially Averaged Navier–Stokes (PANS) method is used for the first time to study an idealized Czochralski crystal growth set-up. It is observed that with a reduction in the PANS filter width, more turbulent scales are resolved and the present PANS model is able to resolve almost all the characteristic flow structures in the Czochralski flow at a comparatively lower computational cost compared with more advanced turbulence modelling tools, such as Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large EddySimulation (LES).

    • Elephant swarm water search algorithm for global optimization

      S MANDAL

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      The rising complexity of real-life optimization problems has constantly inspired computer researchers to develop new efficient optimization methods. Evolutionary computation and metaheuristics based on swarm intelligence are very popular nature-inspired optimization techniques. In this paper, the author has proposed a novel elephant swarm water search algorithm (ESWSA) inspired by the behaviour of social elephants, to solve different optimization problems. This algorithm is mainly based on the water search strategy of intelligent and social elephants during drought. Initially, we perform preliminary parametric sensitivity analysisfor our proposed algorithm, developing guidelines for choosing the parameter values in real-life problems. In addition, the algorithm is evaluated against a number of widely used benchmark functions for global optimizations,and it is observed that the proposed algorithm has better performance for most of the cases compared with other state-of-the-art metaheuristics. Moreover, ESWSA performs better during fitness test, convergence test, computational complexity test, success rate test and scalability test for most of the benchmarks. Next,ESWSA is tested against two well-known constrained optimization problems, where ESWSA is found to be very efficient in term of execution speed and best fitness. As an application of ESWSA to real-life problem, it has been tested against a benchmark problem of computational biology, i.e., inference of Gene Regulatory Network based on Recurrent Neural Network. It has been observed that the proposed ESWSA is able to reach nearest to global minima and enabled inference of all true regulations of GRN correctly with less computational time compared with the other existing metaheuristics.

    • New approach for solving intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective transportation problem


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      Multi-objective transportation problem (MOTP) under intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) environment is analysed in this paper. Due to the fluctuation of market scenario, we assume that the transportation cost, the supply and the demand parameters are not always precise. Hence, the parameters are imprecise, i.e., they are IFnumbers. Considering the specific cut interval, the IF transportation cost matrix is converted to interval cost matrix in our proposed problem. Again, using the same concept, the IF supply and the IF demand of the MOTP are reduced to the interval form. Then the proposed MOTP is changed into the deterministic MOTP, whichincludes interval form of the objective functions. Two approaches, namely intuitionistic fuzzy programming and goal programming, are used to derive the optimal solutions of our proposed problem, and then the optimal solutions are compared. A numerical example is included to illustrate the feasibility and the applicability of the proposed problem. Finally, we present the conclusions with the future scopes of our study.

    • DWT-based blind and robust watermarking using SPIHT algorithm with applications in tele-medicine


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      Malicious manipulation of digital images cannot be ignored in certain critical application like telemedicine, where medical records of the patients (mostly in the form of diagnostic images of brain, chest, heart, lungs, etc.) need to be securely transmitted over the internet for various life-saving consultation and treatments.Watermarking is used to protect such documents from being manipulated and helps detect the authenticity of the image received. A robust and blind image watermarking technique based on discrete wavelet transform is proposed in this paper. For embedding purpose, suitable coefficients are found out using the Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees algorithm. Level of security is further enhanced by scrambling the watermark using Arnold transform and by making the set of embedding locations random using a secret key. Noise Visibility Function isused to compute the minimum allowable distortion for each coefficient before embedding to achieve better image fidelity. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust against certain standard image processing attacks and outperforms the prior existing similar types of watermarking schemes.

    • Scattered data approximation by regular grid weighted smoothing


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      Scattered data approximation refers to the computation of a multi-dimensional function from measurements obtained from scattered spatial locations. For this problem, the class of methods that adopt a roughness minimization are the best performing ones. These methods are called variational methods and they arecapable of handling contrasting levels of sample density. These methods express the required solution as a continuous model containing a weighted sum of thin-plate spline or radial basis functions with centres aligned to the measurement locations, and the weights are specified by a linear system of equations. The main hurdle in this type of method is that the linear system is ill-conditioned. Further, getting the weights that are parameters of the continuous model representing the solution is only a part of the effort. Getting a regular grid image requires resampling of the continuous model, which is typically expensive. We develop a computationally efficient and numerically stable method based on roughness minimization. The method leads to an algorithm that uses standard regular grid array operations only, which makes it attractive for parallelization. We demonstrateexperimentally that we get these computational advantages only with a little compromise in performance when compared with thin-plate spline methods.

    • Torque ripple reduction in direct torque controlled five-phase induction motor using modified five-level torque comparator


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      The five-phase induction motor inherently has the minimal torque ripple. However, when it is controlled by direct torque control (DTC) technique, the torque ripple increases due to the presence of a hysteresis torque comparator. The classical five-level torque comparator is presented in the previous literatures to control the torque ripple. However, this comparator has the drawback of wrong selection of zero voltage vectors inside the inner band on the positive side of the comparator, which enables the torque ripple to increase and dc-link utilization to decrease. In this paper, in order to reduce the torque ripple and to increase the dc-linkutilization, a modified five-level torque comparator is proposed, which selects either medium or small voltage vectors instead of zero voltage vectors inside the inner band on the positive side of the comparator. In addition to torque ripple reduction and improvement in dc-link utilization, the proposed comparator significantly improves the quality of phase current. All the available 32 voltage vectors are selected through the proposed five-level torque comparator based on the location of x–y stator flux in order to eliminate the x–y stator flux so as to obtainreduced distortion in the phase current. By employing all the available voltage vectors, the freedom of utilization of all voltage vectors in the five-phase induction motor DTC drive is availed. The proposed five-level torque comparator is compared to its classical five-level counterpart through simulation and experimental results in order to validate the proposed DTC strategy.

    • κ–μ fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach


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      Finite state Markov channel (FSMC) is the automatic choice for accurate modelling of slow fading channels with memory. FSMC model for a κ–μ fading channel is investigated in this paper. Small-scale variations of the fading signal under Line-Of-Sight conditions are represented by κ–μ fading distributions. Here, FSMC is constructed by partitioning the fading amplitude into several regions. Each region corresponds to a particular state in the Markov model. The transition among these channel states characterizes the physical fading process. Performance measures such as steady-state probability, state-transition probability, level crossing rate and state-time duration corresponding to the κ–μ fading channel are derived, plotted and analysed. Finally,numerical results prove that FSMC modelling provides an effective way to reflect the nature of the κ–μ fading channel.

    • Identification of probabilistic approaches and map-based navigation in motion planning for mobile robots


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      Robot motion planning (RMP) develops a precise path between start and goal points for mobile robots in an unknown environment. RMP is a complex task when it needs to be planned for a group of robots in a coordinated environment with leader–follower relationship. The planned path might change depending upon thenumber of robots and the decision made. The decision made by each robot depends on the feedback received based on the subsequent action taken by other robots. In addition, the computational complexities depend upon factors such as communication between robots, the influence of moving obstacles and environment in which they are interacting. In order to explore further in the area of motion planning, it is felt that a comprehensive survey of available literature would support researchers working in RMP and hence the present paper. This paperreviews around 152 articles published in various international journals and conferences with more emphasis on articles published after 1960. In this work, recent activities carried out in the field of path planning for mobile robotics are critically evaluated and problems faced by the researchers are also highlighted. The focus is towards implementation of probabilistic algorithms, including Probabilistic Road Map and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping. Future research prospects in multi-robot path planning based on probabilistic approaches are also discussed.

    • Design optimization of deep groove ball bearings using crowding distance particle swarm optimization


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      This paper presents a crowding distance particle swarm optimization technique to optimize the design parameters of deep groove ball bearings. The design optimization problem is multi-objective in nature. The considered objectives are maximizing dynamic and static load bearing capacities and minimizing elastohydrodynamic film thickness. The technique is applied to bearings used in transmission system of a tractor for the purpose of farming. Pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the proposed technique. The results obtainedfrom the technique are found to be superior compared with NSGA-II and catalogue values.

    • Anthropometric measurements among four Asian countries in designing sitting and standing workstations


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      An anthropometric database for sitting and standing dimensions for Malaysian operators was developed based on the measurements from 146 male and 168 female participants (18–45 years old). The anthropometric data were subsequently compared to those from three selected Asian countries, focussing on thesitting and standing posture dimensions. Thirty-six anthropometric dimensions were selected for comparison based on common availability among the four countries. The results indicated that the Indonesians were thetallest (male: 172 cm, female: 159 cm) among the four countries, whereas the Filipinos were the shortest for both male and female (male: 167 cm, female: 153.9 cm). Filipinos and Malaysian data were almost similar and appear to have the smallest values for eye height (male: 155 cm, female: 143 cm) and elbow height (male:104 cm, female: 96 cm). The knowledge of variations in the population is useful in designing sound workstations and facilities for the betterment of the industrial environment.

    • The build-up and characterization of nuclear burn-up wave in a fast neutron multiplying medium


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      A study has been carried out on the build-up and characterization of nuclear burn-up wave in fast neutron multiplying media. The focus of the study is more on the transient part of the burn-up wave though the steady state is also studied. The characteristics of the transient part are expressed in terms of new parameters,i.e., Transient Length (TL) and Transient Time (TT) elapsed in establishing the asymptotic burn-up wave. The TT and TL are defined, respectively, as the time and length needed to establish 95% and 99% of the asymptotic neutron flux propagating in the media. From these parameters, the transient wave velocity is determined. The characteristics of asymptotic part of the wave are determined in terms of wave velocity, Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) and Full Width at 10% Maximum (FW10M) of neutron flux distribution in the space. A parametric study is also carried out to investigate the sensitivity of these parameters to some of the physicalparameters of the ignition zone and the breeder zone of the reactor. The characterization parameters would be very meaningful to understand the transient characteristics of the self-sustaining nuclear burn-up wave and in evaluating the quality of the wave by the researchers working in the field of nuclear burn-up wave build-up and propagation.

    • Solute transport modelling with the variable temporally dependent boundary


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      In this present study, analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for solute transport modelling in homogeneous semi-infinite porous medium. The dispersion coefficient is assumed to be initial dispersion and velocity is assumed to be temporally dependent with initial seepage velocity. Also, the concept of dispersion is directly proportional to the square of the seepage velocity used for finding the solution. Initially, the domain is not solute free. At one end of the domain, source concentration with the effect of different temporally dependent functions taken into account. The concentration gradient assumed to be zero due to no mass flux at other end of the domain. Laplace Transform Technique is used to obtain the exact solution, whereas Explicit Finite Difference method is used for approximate solution. The different types of temporally dependent velocity are usedfor the graphical representation of the solution. The accuracy of the solution explored by the Relative error analysis.

    • A two-dimensional problem of a mode-I crack in a rotating fibre-reinforced isotropic thermoelastic medium under dual-phase-lag model


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      In the present work, a general model of the equations of generalized thermoelasticity for a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space solid whose surface is subjected to a mode-I crack problem under the effect of rotation is investigated. The normal mode analyses are used to obtain the expressions for the temperature distribution, the displacement component and thermal stresses in the context of the dual-phase-lag theory of thermoelasticity proposed by Tzou. The boundary of the crack is subjected to a prescribed stress distribution and temperature. Some particular cases are also discussed in the context of the problem. The numerical values of the temperature distribution, the displacement components and thermal stresses are also computed for a suitable material and the results are presented graphically. The effects of rotation, reinforcementand the phase lags parameters are discussed in detail in the light of earlier works.

    • Seismic vulnerability assessment of a continuous steel box girder bridge considering influence of LRB properties


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      Bridges are one of the most crucial facilities of transportation networks. Therefore, evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of bridge structures is perpetually regarded topic for researchers. In this study, we developed seismic fragility curves for a continuous steel box girder bridge considering the effect of differentlevels of mechanical properties of lead rubber bearing (LRB) devices including initial stiffness and yield strength on the seismic performance of such structure. A powerful framework for an earthquake engineering simulation, OpenSees, is used to perform nonlinear analyses of the bridge model. In order to construct fragilitycurves for this structure, a set of 20 ground acceleration records is adopted and various scales of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) from 0.1 to 1.6 g are considered. Besides, a series of damage state of the bridgeis definedbased on a damage index, which is expressed in terms of the column displacement ductility ratio. Fragility analyses result reveals that reducing the initial stiffness of LRBs reduces the seismic vulnerability of bridge piers and vice versa. Meanwhile, the changes of the yield strength of LRBs have trivially effected on the seismic behaviour of the bridge piers. On the other hand, the short pier has performed more susceptibly than those of the high pier in both seismically-isolated and non-isolated bridge cases. Lastly, the results in this research alsoindicate that the bridge structures equipped with seismic isolation devices (e.g. LRBs) significantly mitigated the damages due to earthquakes.

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