pp 377-384 April 2016
There are two methods applied for three-dimensional digital image correlation method to measure three-dimensional displacement. One is to measure the spatial coordinates of measuring points by analyzing the images. Then, the displacement vectors of these points can be calculated using the spatial coordinates of these points obtained at different stages. The other is to calibrate the parameters for individual measuring points locally. Then, the local displacements of these points can be measured directly. This study proposes a simple local three-dimensional displacement measurement method. Without any complicated distortion correction processes, this method can be used to measure small displacement in the three-dimensional space through asimple calibration process. A laboratory experiment and field experiment are carried out to prove the accuracy of this proposed method. Laboratory test errors of one-dimensional experiment are similar to the accuracy of theXYZ table; the error in Z-direction is only 0.0025% of the object distance. The measurement error of laboratory test is about 0.0033% of the object distance for local three-dimensional displacement measurement test. Test and analysis results of field test display that in-plane displacement error is only 0.12 mm, and the out-of-plane error is 1.1 mm for 20 m 9 30 m measuring range. The out-of-plane error is only about 10 PPM of the object distance. These test and analysis results show that this proposed method can achieve very high accuracy under small displacement for both of laboratory and field tests.
pp 385-395 April 2016
Mammography is the most widely used tool for the early detection of breast cancer. Computer based algorithms can be developed to improve diagnostic information in mammograms and assist the radiologist to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel computer aided technique to classifyabnormalities in mammograms using fusion of local and global features. The objective of this work is to test the effectiveness of combined use of local and global features in detecting abnormalities in mammograms. Local features used in the system are Chebyshev moments and Haralick’s gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture features. Global features used are Laws texture energy measures, Gabor based texture energy measures and fractal dimension. All types of abnormalities namely clusters of microcalcifications, circumscribed masses, spiculated masses, architectural distortions and ill-defined masses are considered. A support vector machine classifier is designed to classify the samples into abnormal and normal classes. It is observed that combined useof local and global features has improved classification accuracy from 88.75% to 93.17%
pp 397-405 April 2016
This paper reports a suspended coil, electromagnetic acoustic energy harvester (AEH) for extracting acoustical energy. The developed AEH comprises Helmholtz resonator (HR), a wound coil bonded to a flexible membrane and a permanent magnet placed in a magnet holder. The harvester’s performance is analyzed under different sound pressure levels (SPLs) both in laboratory and in real environment. In laboratory, when connected to 50 &Omega load resistance and subjected to an SPL of 100 dB, the AEH generated a peak load voltage of 198.7 mV at the resonant frequency of 319 Hz. When working under the optimum load resistance, the AEH generated an optimum load power of 789.65 &muv. In real environment, the developed AEH produced a maximum voltage of25 mV when exposed to the acoustic noise of a motorcycle and generated an optimum voltage of 60 mV when it is placed in the surroundings of a domestic electrical generator.
pp 407-414 April 2016
This paper presents the development of epoxy-silica nanocomposites and characterized for dielectric properties. The effect of nanosilica loading (0–20 wt%), frequency, temperature and sea water aging on these properties was studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the samples showed an excellent dispersion. However, at higher silica loading TEM showed inter-contactity of the particles. The dielectric constant (υ') increased with silica loading and reached an optimum at about 10 wt%. The υ' of the nanocomposites showed linear decrease with frequency whereas AC conductivity (σac) increases. The σac and υ' increased marginally with temperature and sea water aging.
pp 415-423 April 2016
In this paper, a simple and computationally efficient approach is proposed for person independent facial emotion recognition. The proposed approach is based on the significant features of an image, i.e., the collection of few largest eigenvalues (LE). Further, a Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm-based neural network (LMNN) is applied for multiclass emotions classification. This leads to a new facial emotion recognition approach (LE-LMNN) which is systematically examined on JAFFE and Cohn–Kanade databases. Experimental results illustrate that the LE-LMNN approach is effective and computationally efficient for facial emotion recognition. The robustness of the proposed approach is also tested on low-resolution facial emotion images.The performance of the proposed approach is found to be superior as compared to the various existing methods.
pp 425-433 April 2016
This study examined critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes. It is shown that the critical submergence for an isolated intake can be predicted by disregarding whole boundary blockages on the complete imaginary critical sink surface that is the combination of imaginary complete critical cylindrical and hemi-spherical sink surfaces. It is proposed that this theory can be applied to the rectangular intakes located in general geometrical and flow conditions (i.e., intake in still water, circulation imposed flow, non-developedcross-flow, multiple intakes, etc.) and that it does not require computation of blockages caused from flow boundaries. The concept of complete sink surface (disregarding whole boundary blockages) developed for an isolated intake was also applied to dual rectangular intakes. The agreement between available test data and theoretical results was found to be satisfactory.
pp 435-439 April 2016
Estimation of the turbulent dissipation rate in a boundary layer is a very involved process.Experimental determination of either the dissipation rate or the Taylor microscale, even in isotropic turbulence,which may occur in a portion of the turbulent boundary layer, is known to be a difficult task. For constant pressure boundary layers, a model for the turbulent dissipation rate is proposed here in terms of the local mean flow quantities. Comparable agreement between the estimated Taylor microscale and Kolmogorov length scale with other data in the logarithmic region suggests usefulness of this model in obtaining these quantitiesexperimentally
pp 441-450 April 2016
A modified version of the previously reported ghost-cell immersed boundary method is implemented in parallel environment based on distributed memory allocation. Reconstruction of the flow variables is carried out by the inverse distance weighting technique. Implementation of the normal pressure gradient on the immersed surface is demonstrated. Finite volume method with non-staggered arrangement of variables on a nonuniform cartesian grid is employed to solve the fluid flow equations. The proposed method shows reasonable agreement with the reported results for flow past a stationary sphere, rotating and transversely oscillating circular cylinder.
pp 451-458 April 2016
The reliability and limits of solutions for static structural analysis depend on the accuracy of the curvature and deflection calculations. Even if the material model is close to the actual material behavior, physically unrealistic deflections or divergence problems are unavoidable in the analysis if an appropriate fundamental kinematic theory is not chosen. Moreover, accurate deflection calculation plays an important role in ultimate strength analysis where in-plane stresses are considered. Therefore, a more powerful method is neededto achieve reliable deflection calculation and modeling. For this purpose, a new advanced step was developed by coupling the elasto-plastic material behavior with precise general planar kinematic analysis. The deflection is generated precisely without making geometric assumptions or using differential equations of the deflection curve. An analytical finite strain solution was derived for an elasto-plastic prismatic/non-prismatic rectangular cross-sectioned beam under a uniform moment distribution. A comparison of the analytical results with thosefrom the Abaqus FEM software package reveals a coherent correlation.
pp 459-468 April 2016
Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental setup is developed to estimate the equilibrium methane adsorption capacity and adsorption/desorption kinetics. The experimental isothermal uptake data is used to fit four different isotherm models. Using the constants obtained for the D–A isotherm model the variation of heat of adsorption and adsorbed phase specific heat with equilibrium pressure and temperature are obtained. Similarly Henry’s Law coefficients, important at low pressure and low uptake regime are also obtained. Finally using the kinetic data and a linear driving force model,constants in the kinetic equation are obtained. Results show that the indigenous material used in this study offers reasonably high natural gas storage capacity and fast kinetics and is suitable for adsorbed natural gas (ANG)applications. It is expected that this study will be useful in the design and development of ANG systems based on this indigenous material.