• Issue front cover thumbnail

      Volume 88, Issue 2

      February 2017

    • Bound-state energy of double magic number plus one nucleon nuclei with relativistic mean-field approach

      M MOUSAVI M R SHOJAEI

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      In this work, we have obtained energy levels and charge radius for the $\beta$-stability line nucleus, in relativistic shell model. In this model, we considered a close shell for each nucleus containing double magicnumber and a single nucleon energy level. Here we have taken $^{41}$Ca with a single neutron in the $^{40}$Ca core as an illustrative example. Then we have selected the Eckart plus Hulthen potentials for interaction between the coreand the single nucleon. By using parametric Nikiforov–Uvarov (PNU) method, we have calculated the energy values and wave function. Finally, we have calculated the charge radius for 17O, $^{41}$Ca, $^{49}$Ca and $^{57}$Ni. Our results are in agreement with experimental values and hence this model can be applied for similar nuclei.

    • Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic cosmological model

      C P SINGH MILAN SRIVASTAVA

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar fields with a zero rest mass and an exponential potential are studied, respectively. We find that both assumptions of potential along with the average scale factor as an exponential function of scalar field lead to the logarithmic formof scalar field in each case which further gives power-law form of the average scale factor. Using these forms of the average scale factor, exact solutions of the field equations are obtained to the metric functions which represent a power-law and a hybrid expansion, respectively. We find that the zero-rest-mass model expands with decelerated rate and behaves like a stiff matter. In the case of exponential potential function, the model decelerates, accelerates or shows the transition depending on the parameters. The isotropization is observed at late-time evolution of the Universe in the exponential potential model.

    • Nonlinear waves in electron–positron–ion plasmas including charge separation

      A MUGEMANA S MOOLLA I J LAZARUS

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic waves in a magnetized, three-component plasma consisting of hot electrons, hot positrons and warm ions have been investigated. The electrons and positrons are assumed to have Boltzmann density distributions while the motion of the ions are governed by fluid equations. The system is closed with the Poisson equation. This set of equations is numerically solved for the electric field. The effects of the driving electric field, ion temperature, positron density, ion drift, Mach number and propagation angle are investigated. It is shown that depending on the driving electric field, ion temperature, positron density, ion drift, Mach number and propagation angle, the numerical solutions exhibit waveforms that are sinusoidal, sawtooth andspiky. The introduction of the Poisson equation increased the Mach number required to generate the waveforms but the driving electric field E0 was reduced. The results are compared with satellite observations.

    • Hybrid combination of multi-layer perceptron and neutron activation analysis in cement prediction

      E EFTEKHARI-ZADEH S A H FEGHHI G H ROSHANI

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Determination of concentration of major elements such as Ca, Si, Al, and Fe in cement is very important for quality control during its production, correct classification according to the existing standards, and thus for appropriate use in the construction industry. For this purpose, neutron activation analysis is verysuitable. In this preliminary theoretical work, the irradiation and consecutive measurement of the percentage of the constituent elements in different cement samples were done using MCNPX with γ -ray spectra as the output. Specific peaks of Ca, Si, Al, and Fe obtained from these spectra were used as input for artificial neural network (18 of them for training and 8 for testing) resulting in the determination of each element in the given sample. The mean absolute errors of the results are less than 0.4%, which is very promising for the future xperimental work where the uncertainties are usually one order higher.

    • Asymptotic iteration method for the modified Pöschl–Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential in the Dirac equation spin symmetry

      BETA NUR PRATIWI A SUPARMI C CARI ANDRI SOFYAN HUSEIN

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Analytical solution of the Dirac equation for the modified Pöschl–Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential for spin symmetry is studied using asymptotic iteration method. One-dimensional Dirac equation consisting of the radial and angular parts can be obtained by the separation of variables. By usingasymptotic iteration method, the relativistic energy equation and orbital quantum number (l) equation can be obtained, where both are interrelated. Relativistic energy equation is calculated numerically by the Matlab software. The increase in the radial quantum number $n_r$ causes a decrease in the energy value, and the wave functions of the radial and the angular parts are expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. Some thermodynamical properties of the system can be determined by reducing the relativistic energy equation to the non-relativisticenergy equation. Thermodynamical properties such as vibrational partition function, vibrational specific heat function and vibrational mean energy function are expressed in terms of error function.

    • Dynamics of higher-dimensional FRW cosmology in $R^p$ exp($\lambda R$) gravity

      SEBIKA KANGSHA BANIK KALYAN BHUYAN

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      We study the cosmological dynamics for $R_p$ exp($\lambda R$) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its behaviour and stability for both vacuum and matter cases. It is found that stable solutions corresponding to accelerated expansion at late times exist, which can describe the inflationary era of the Universe. We also study the evolution of scale factors both in the normal and extra dimensions for different values of anisotropy parameter and the number of extra dimensions for such a scenario.

    • Factors controlling phase formation of novel Sr-based Y-type hexagonal ferrite nanoparticles

      R THOLKAPPIYAN K VISHISTA FATHALLA HAMED

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      New Sr-based Y-type nanocrystalline hexagonal ferrites with a nominal chemical composition of Sr$_2$Mg$_2$Fe$_{12}$O$_{22}$ (Sr$_2$Y) were prepared by autocombustion from mixtures of Sr(NO$_3$)$_2$, Mg(NO$_3$ )$_2$·6H$_2$O and Fe(NO$_3$)$_3$·9H$_2$O. The newly prepared Sr$_2$Y nanocrystalline particles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). A well crystalline phase of Sr$_2$Y with hexagonal crystal structure was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies revealed the information about the positions of the ions and their bonds within the lattice structure of the Sr2Y. The chemical elements and their oxidation states in the Sr$_2$Y hexaferriteswere determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD, FTIR and XPS studies confirmed the formation of Sr$_2$Mg$_2$Fe$_{12}$O$_{22}$ hexaferrites. The morphology and porosity of the prepared Sr$_2$Y nanocrystalline Sr$_2$Y hexaferrite particles were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic properties of Sr$_2$Y hexaferrites showed dependence on the methods of preparation conditions and calcination treatments. The values of coercivity, saturation magnetization and retentivity were in the range of 21.33–19.66 kA m$^{−1}$, 42.44–38.72 emu g$^{−1}$ and 10.05–13.19 emu g$^{−1}$ respectively.

    • Solitons, compactons and undular bores in Benjamin–Bona–Mahony-like systems

      APARNA SAHA B TALUKDAR UMAPADA DAS SUPRIYA CHATTERJEE

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      We examine the effect of dissipation on travelling waves in nonlinear dispersive systems modelled by Benjamin–Bona–Mahony (BBM)-like equations. In the absence of dissipation, the BBM-like equations are found to support soliton and compacton/anticompacton solutions depending on whether the dispersive term islinear or nonlinear. We study the influence of increasing nonlinearity of the medium on the soliton and compacton dynamics. The dissipative effect is found to convert the solitons either to undular bores or to shock-like waves depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the equations. The anticompacton solutions are also transformed to undular bores by the effect of dissipation. But the compactons tend to vanish due to viscous effects. The local oscillatory structures behind the bores and/or shock-like waves in the case of solitons and anticompactons are found to depend sensitively both on the coefficient of viscosity and solution of the unperturbed problem.

    • Search for $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C clustering in $^{24}$Mg ground state

      B N JOSHI ARUN K JAIN D C BISWAS B V JOHN Y K GUPTA L S DANU R P VIND G K PRAJAPATI S MUKHOPADHYAY A SAXENA

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      In the backdrop of many models, the heavy cluster structure of the ground state of $^{24}$Mg has been probed experimentally for the first time using the heavy cluster knockout reaction $^{24}$Mg($^{12}$C, $^{212}$C)$^{12}$C in thequasifree scattering kinematic domain. In the ($^{12}$C, $^{212}$C) reaction, the direct $^{12}$C-knockout cross-section was found to be very small. Finite-range knockout theory predictions were much larger for ($^{12}$C, 212C) reaction,indicating a very small $^{12}$C−$^{12}$C clustering in $^{24}$Mg(g.s.). Our present results contradict most of the proposed heavy cluster ($^{12}$C+$^{12}$C) structure models for the ground state of $^{24}$Mg.

    • Dynamics of Bianchi type-VI$_0$ holographic dark energy models in general relativity and Lyra’s geometry

      S D KATORE D V KAPSE

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      In this paper, we have studied the anisotropic and homogeneous Bianchi type-VI$_0$ Universe filled with dark matter and holographic dark energy components in the framework of general relativity and Lyra’s geometry. The Einstein’s field equations have been solved exactly by taking the expansion scalar ($\theta$) in the model is proportional to the shear scalar ($\sigma$). Some physical and kinematical properties of the models are also discussed.

    • Lie group analysis of flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching surface with convective boundary condition

      AHMED A AFIFY MOHAMED ABD EL-AZIZ

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The steady two-dimensional flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian power-law nanofluid over a stretching surface under convective boundary conditions and temperature-dependent fluid viscosity has been numerically investigated. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe non-Newtonian characteristics of the flow. Four different types of nanoparticles, namely copper (Cu), silver (Ag), alumina (Al$_2$O$_3$) and titanium oxide (TiO$_2$) are considered by using sodium alginate (SA) as the base non-Newtonian fluid. Lie symmetry group transformations are used to convert the boundary layer equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved numerically by using a shooting method with fourth-order Runge–Kutta integration scheme. The results show that the effect of viscosity on the heat transfer rate is remarkable only for relatively strong convective heating. Moreover, the skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer increasewith an increase in Biot number.

    • The effects of Mg incorporation and annealing temperature on the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity against {\it Listeria monocytogenes} of ZnO nanoparticles

      NIMA SHADAN ALI ABDOLAHZADEH ZIABARI RAFIEH MERAAT KAMYAR MAZLOUM JALALI

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      In this paper, Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile sol–gel method. The crystalline structure, characteristic absorption bands and morphology of the obtained Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by XRD, FTIR and TEM. The thermal degradation behaviour of the samples was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The effect of Mg concentrations and annealing temperatures on the antibacterial properties of the obtained nanoparticles was investigated in detail.The results indicated that doping Mg ions into ZnO lattice could enhance its antibacterial activity. Antibacterial assay demonstrated that Mg-doped ZnO with 7% Mg content annealed at 400◦C had the strongest antibacterialactivity against {\it Listeria monocytogenes} (98.7%). This study indicated that the inhibition rate of ZnO nanoparticles increased with the formation of granular structure and the decrease of ZnO size due to the doping of Mg ions into the ZnO lattice.

    • Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression

      N K VARSHNAY A A SINGH N S BENERJI

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for repetitive operation. A magnetically coupled tangential blower is used for gas circulation inside the laser chamber for repetitive operation. The exciter consists of C–C energy transfer circuit and thyratron is used as a high-voltage main switch with singlestage magnetic pulse compression (MPC) between thyratron and the laser electrodes. Low inductance of the laser head and uniform and intense pre-ionization are the main features of the electric circuit used in the laser. A 250 ns rise time voltage pulse was compressed to 100 ns duration with a single-stage magnetic pulse compressor using Ni–Zn ferrite cores. The laser can generate about 150 mJ at ∼100 Hz rep-rate reliably from a discharge volumeof 100 cm$^3$. 2D spatial laser beam profile generated is presented here. The profile shows that the laser beam is completely filled with flat-top which is suitable for material processing applications. The SEM image of the microhole generated on copper target is presented here.

    • Implementation of a new memristor-based multiscroll hyperchaotic system

      CHUNHUA WANG HU XIA LING ZHOU

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      In this paper, a new type of flux-controlled memristor model with fifth-order flux polynomials is presented. An equivalent circuit which realizes the action of higher-order flux-controlled memristor is also proposed. We use the memristor model to establish a memristor-based four-dimensional (4D) chaotic system, which can generate three-scroll chaotic attractor. By adjusting the system parameters, the proposed chaotic system performs hyperchaos. Phase portraits, Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation diagram, equilibrium points and stability analysis have been used to research the basic dynamics of this chaotic system. The consistency of circuit implementation and numerical simulation verifies the effectiveness of the system design.

    • Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses of different wavelengths in argon

      XIEXING QI WENBIN LIN

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      We investigate the filaments formed by the ultrashort laser pulses with different wavelengths of 400 nm, 586 nm and 800 nm propagating in argon. Numerical results show that, when the input power or the ratio of the input power to the critical power is given, the pulse with 400 nm wavelength has the largest on-axis intensity, as well as the narrowest filament and the most stable beam radius. These results indicate that the pulse with shorter wavelength is more suitable for the long-range propagation in argon.

    • Influence of absorbed pump profile on the temperature distribution within a diode side-pumped laser rod

      M H MOGHTADER DINDARLU H TEHRANI M KAVOS H SAGHAFIFAR A MALEKI GH SOLOOKINEJAD M JABBARI

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      In this paper, an analytical model for temperature distribution of the side-pumped laser rod is extracted. This model can be used for side-pumped laser rods whose absorbed pump profile is a Gaussian profile. Then, it is validated by numerical results which exhibit a good agreement with the analytical results. Afterwards, by considering a general expression for super-Gaussian and top-hat profiles, and solving the heat equation, the influence of profile width and super-Gaussian exponent of the profile on temperature distribution are investigated.Consequently, the profile width turns out to have a greater influence on the temperature compared to the type of the profile.

    • Cross over of recurrence networks to random graphs and random geometric graphs

      RINKU JACOB K P HARIKRISHNAN R MISRA G AMBIKA

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Recurrence networks are complex networks constructed from the time series of chaotic dynamical systems where the connection between two nodes is limited by the recurrence threshold. This condition makes the topology of every recurrence network unique with the degree distribution determined by the probability densityvariations of the representative attractor from which it is constructed. Here we numerically investigate the properties of recurrence networks from standard low-dimensional chaotic attractors using some basic network measuresand show how the recurrence networks are different from random and scale-free networks. In particular, we show that all recurrence networks can cross over to random geometric graphs by adding sufficient amount of noise tothe time series and into the classical random graphs by increasing the range of interaction to the system size. We also highlight the effectiveness of a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient in capturing the small changes in the network characteristics.

    • Nanoflare heating model for collisionless solar corona

      U L VISAKH KUMAR BILIN SUSAN VARGHESE P J KURIAN

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The problem of coronal heating remains one of the greatest unresolved problems in space science. Magnetic reconnection plays a significant role in heating the solar corona. When two oppositely directed magnetic fields come closer to form a current sheet, the current density of the plasma increases due to which magnetic reconnection and conversion of magnetic energy into thermal energy takes place. The present paper deals with a model for reconnection occurring in the solar corona under steady state in collisionless regime. The model predicts that reconnection time in the solar corona varies inversely with the cube of magnetic field and varies directly with the Lindquist number. Our analysis shows that reconnections are occurring within a time interval of600 s in the solar corona, producing nanoflares in the energy range $10^{21}–10^{23}$ erg/s which matches with Yohkoh X-ray observations.

    • Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverse-linear potential: Biconfluent Heun functions

      ALTUG˘ ARDA CEVDET TEZCAN RAMAZAN SEVER

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverselinear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun’s equation.We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to analytically compute thethermal functions by considering only the contribution of positive part of the spectrum to the partition function.

  • Pramana – Journal of Physics | News

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

© 2017-2019 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru.