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      Volume 86, Issue 3

      March 2016,   pages  495-722

    • The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

      Zong-Cheng Xu Mai-Lin Liang Ya-Ting Zhang Jian-Quan Yao

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      The entanglement properties of two entangled atoms interacting with the field under intensity-dependent coupling are studied in detail. It is found that the degree of entanglement between the two atoms changes periodically and undergoes the entanglement sudden death (ESD) and sudden birth at some time. The entanglement properties between the field and the atom insidethe cavity are dependent on the photon number. Most interestingly, the entanglement between the field and the atom in the field is influenced significantly by manipulating the atom outside the field.

    • Dynamics of non-Markovianity in the presence of a driving field

      Mandani Somayeh Sarbishaei Mohsen Javidan Kurosh

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      We investigate a two-level system in a cavity QED by considering the effects ofamplitude damping, phase damping and driving field. We have studied the non-Markovianity in resonance and non-resonance limits in the presence of these effects using Breuer–Laine–Piilo (BLP) non-Markovianity measure ($N_{\rm BLP}$). The evolution of the system is derived using the time convolutionless (TCL) master equation. In some conditions, it is shown that in the presence of a driving field, the $N_{\rm BLP} increases in the resonance and non-resonance limits. We have also found the exact solution of the master equation in order to investigate the effect of temperature- and environment excited states. We have shown that the behaviour of non-Markovianity is very different from what one can see from the TCL approach. We have also presented some explanation about the behaviour of non-Markovianity in the exact solution using quantum discord (QD).

    • Two-way quantum communication: Generalization of secure quantum information exchange to quantum network

      Maurya Ajay K Mishra Manoj K Prakash Hari

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      The idea of secure quantum information exchange (SQIE) [{\it J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.} 44, 115504 (2011)] is introduced for the secure exchange of single qubit information states between two legitimate users, Alice and Bob. In the present paper, we extend this original SQIE protocol by presenting a scheme, which enables the secure exchange of n-single qubit information states among the n nodes of a quantum network, with the aid of a special kind of 4$n$-qubit entangled state and the classical assistance of an extra participant Charlie. For experimental realization of our extended SQIE protocol, we suggest an efficient scheme for the generation of a special kind of 4n-qubit entangled state using the interaction between highly detuned $\Lambda$-type three-level atoms and optical coherent field. Further, by discussing the various experimental parameters, we show that the special kind 4$n$-qubit entangled state can be generated with the presently available technology.

    • Regular

      Ratanpal B S Sharma Jaita

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      The charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time is reported by choosing a particular form of radial pressure and electric field intensity. The non-singular solution of Einstein–Maxwell system of equation has been derived and it is shown that the model satisfies all the physical plausibility conditions. It is observed that in the absence of electric field intensity, the model reducesto a particular case of uncharged Sharma and Ratanpal model. It is also observed that the parameter used in the electric field intensity directly affects mass of the star.

    • On the stabilization of modulus in Randall–Sundrum model by R$\Phi^2$ interaction

      Tofighi A

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      A solution to the problem of modulus stabilization is to couple a massless bulk scalar field non-minimally to five-dimensional curvature. We present an exact treatment of the stabilization condition. Our results show that the square of effective mass of this scalar field is necessarily negative. We also find the existence of a closely spaced maximum near the minimum of the effective potential

    • Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured networks

      Cai Guoliang Jiang Shengqin Cai Shuiming Tian Lixin

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      A novel finite-time analysis is given to investigate the global projective synchronization on coloured networks. Some less conservative conditions are derived by utilizing finite-time control techniques and Lyapunov stability theorem. In addition, two illustrative numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

    • The influence of fragmentation models in the production of hadron jets in electron–positron annihilation

      Hasheminia M Mirjalili A Zomorrodian M E Sepehri A

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      The analysis of electron–positron annihilations to hadrons at high energies shows that apart from two-jet events, there are also signs of three-jet events which are interpreted according to the QCD, as a gluon radiated by a quark. In this paper, we investigate the fragmentation of quarks and gluons to hadron jets. We show that gluon jets have a higher multiplicity compared to quark jets of the same energy. Furthermore, inclusion of different flavours in the distributions shows that quark jets are flavour-dependent, but gluon jets are not. The differences between quark and gluon jets also manifest themselves in the fragmentation functions. We observe that the fragmentation for gluon jet is softer than that for quark jet, because the radiation of soft gluons is larger for gluon jetsand that gluon cannot be present as a valence parton inside a produced hadron. We provide possible explanations for these features in this paper.

    • Behaviour of tunnelling transition rate of argon atom exposed to strong low-frequency elliptical laser field

      Miladinovic Tatjana B Petrovic Violeta M

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      We considered the tunnelling ionization of an electron under the influence of amonochromatic laser beam with the elliptical polarization. Arbitrary values of ellipticity were observed. The influence of ponderomotive potential and Stark shift on the ionization rate was discussed. A brief description of the dependence of the ponderomotive potential and the Keldysh parameter on the field intensity and ellipticity is given.

    • Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

      Lin Xiao-Gang Liu Wen-Jun Lei Ming

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      Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota’s bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

    • Nonlinear structures for extended Korteweg–de Vries equation in multicomponent plasma

      Abdelsalam U M Allehiany F M Moslem W M El-Labany S K

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      Using the fluid hydrodynamic equations of positive and negative ions, as well as$q$-nonextensive electron density distribution, an extended Korteweg–de Vries (EKdV) equation describing a small but finite amplitude dust ion-acoustic waves (DIAWs) is derived. Extended homogeneous balance method is used to obtain a new class of solutions of the EKdV equation. The effects of different physical parameters on the propagating nonlinear structures and their relevanceto particle acceleration in space plasma are reported.

    • Argon ion beam interaction on polyethylene terephthalate surface by a 4 kJ plasma focus device

      Habibi Morteza Alavi M H S

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      Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has a wide variety of applications ranging from making regular bottles to biosensors. However, for many of these applications, surface treatment is needed to improve its surface characteristics such as adhesion to other materials. In this study, we focussed on treating PET foils by dense Ar pulsed plasma produced by a 4.5 kJ Mather-type plasmafocus device (20 kV, 40 $\mu$f, 115 nH) to examine its ability to make the PET surface hydrophilic. The most common method to examine this characteristic is measuring the water contact angle on a polymer surface. The results show that while the energy and density of plasma in our device are higher compared to other devices, as the exposure time is very low, the device can enhance thewettability of PET film surfaces.

    • Structural investigation on gamma-irradiated polyacrylamide hydrogels using small-angle neutron scattering and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy

      Sivananatham M Tata B V R Aswal V K

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      Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopictechniques are used to investigate the microstructural changes in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels on gamma irradiation. SANS measurements have revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in nanometre scale and reduction of their size with increase in dose. Analysis of SANS data alsorevealed the increase in the correlation length with increase in dose. The extinction coefficient obtained from the UV–visible spectroscopic studies exhibited $\lambda^{−\beta}$ dependence between 500 and 700 nm and is understood to arise from the existence of scatterers (inhomogeneities) in submicron scale in PAAm hydrogels. The increase in value of exponent $\beta$ with increase in dose indicates that the size of scatterers decrease with increase in dose.

    • Communication on the structure of biological networks

      Deyasi Krishanu Upadhyay Shashankaditya Banerjee Anirban

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      Networks are widely used to represent interaction pattern among the components in complex systems. Structures of real networks from different domains may vary quite significantly. As there is an interplay between network architecture and dynamics, structure plays an important role in communication and spreading of information in a network. Here we investigate the underlying undirected topology of different biological networks which support faster spreading of information and are better in communication. We analyse the good expansion property by using the spectral gap and communicability between nodes. Different epidemic models are also used to study the transmission of information in terms of spreading of disease through individuals (nodes)in those networks. Moreover, we explore the structural conformation and properties which may be responsible for better communication. Among all biological networks studied here, the undirected structure of neuronal networks not only possesses the small-world property but the same is also expressed remarkably to a higher degree compared to any randomly generated network which possesses the same degree sequence. A relatively high percentage of nodes, in neuronal networks, form a higher core in their structure. Our study shows that the underlying undirected topology in neuronal networks, in a significant way, is qualitatively different from the same in other biologicalnetworks and that they may have evolved in such a way that they inherit a (undirected) structure which is excellent and robust in communication.

    • Photoinduced current and emission induced by current in a nanowire transistor: Temperature dependence

      Darehdor Mahvash Arabi Shahtahmassebi Nasser

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      In this paper, we present a theoretical study on a light emitting and current carrying nanosystem, in the nonzero temperature regime. The system under consideration is a semiconducting nanowire sandwiched between two semi-infinite metallic electrodes. The study was performed using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function method. We systematically investigate the photoinduced current and the light emission induced by this electronic current in the presence of gate voltage. The temperature dependence of these processes are also investigated in the temperature range of 3–300 K. Our study shows that, the photoinduced current is due to the transfer of electrons from highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to the lowest unoccupied molecularorbital (LUMO). Thus, the separation of electron from the electron–hole pair creates a free electron which is responsible for the observed photoinduced current. The same conclusion is also arrived at for the reverse process of light emission under the influence of the electronic current.

    • Electrospun polystyrene fibres on TiO$_2$ nanostructured film to enhance the hydrophobicity and corrosion resistance of stainless steel substrates

      Azimirad R Safa S

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      A dual layer of dip-coated TiO$_2$ film (top layer) and electrospun polystyrene (bottom layer) was coated on stainless steel (SS) substrates. The morphological and structural studies were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their hydrophobicity and corrosion resistance were also investigated using contact angle (CA) and electrochemical corrosion tests in acidic and salt solutions, respectively. Contact angle results showed that the naturally hydrophilic TiO$_2$/SS sample (CA ∼ 66$^\deg$) turned into a superhydrophic surface (CA ∼ 148$^\deg$) when it was covered by polystyrene fibres (PS/TiO2/SS). This observation can be attributed to the intrinsic hydrophobicity of organic polystyrene fibres (due to their low surface energy) and also to the existence of trapped air bubbles between fibres. Electrochemical corrosion tests showed that the corrosion rate was substantially decreased by using a protective bilayer (PS/TiO$_2$) from 33 to 0.39 mV/y for bare SS sample and from 0.01 to 0.003 mV/y for PS/TiO$_2$/SS sample in 1 M salt and acidic solutions, respectively. The superhydrophobic protective layer forms an obstacle against ionic exchange interactions. Therefore, it slows down the breaking of the surface oxidic layer on the metal substrate and prevents the metallic surface underneath from further corrosion.

    • Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped semiconductor quantum dot – The effect of electron–phonon interaction

      Misra Deepanjali Tripathy Sukanta Kumar

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      A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in alight emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different temperatures and magnetic fields. It is found that magnetic impurityincreases the degree of spin polarization irrespective of temperature, while the electron–phonon interaction decreases the degree of spin polarization. Results are found to be in better agreement with experiments.

    • Influence of soliton distributions on the spin-dependent electronic transport through polyacetylene molecule

      Ketabi S A Nakhaee M

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      In this paper, a detailed numerical study of the role of selected soliton distributions on the spin-dependent transport through {\it trans}-polyacetylene (PA) molecule is presented. The molecule is attached symmetrically to magnetic semi-infinite three-dimensional electrodes. Based on Su–Schrieffer–Heeger (SSH) Hamiltonian and using a generalized Green’s function formalism, wecalculate the spin-dependent currents, the electronic transmission and tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR). We found that the presence of a uniform distribution of the soliton centres along the molecular chain reduced the size of the band gap of {\it trans}-PA molecule. Moreover, a sublattice of the correlated solitons as binary clusters, which are randomly distributed along the chain, can induce extended electronic states in the band gap of the molecule. In this case, the band gap of the molecule is suppressed and at lower voltages, the TMR bandwidth is narrowed. The current–voltage characteristic then shows an ohmic-like behaviour.

    • Anisotropic cosmological models with bulk viscosity and particle creation in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation

      Chandel S Ram Shri

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      The paper deals with the study of particle creation and bulk viscosity in the evolution of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological models in the framework of Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Particle creation and bulk viscosity are considered as separate irreversible processes. The energy–momentum tensor is modified to accommodate the viscous pressure and creation pressure which is associated with the creation of matter out of gravitational field. A special law of variation of Hubble parameter is applied to obtain exact solutions of field equations in two types of cosmologies, one with power-law expansion and the other with exponential expansion. Cosmological model with power-law expansion has a Big-Bang singularity at time $t = 0$, whereas the model with exponential expansion has no finite singularity. We study bulk viscosity and particle creation in each model in four different cases. The bulk viscosity coefficient is obtained for full causal, Eckart’s and truncated theories. All physical parameters are calculated and thoroughly discussed in both models.

    • Evolution of holographic dark energy with interaction term $Q \propto H\rho_{\rm de}$ and generalized second law

      Praseetha P Mathew Titus K

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      A flat FLRW Universe with dark matter and dark energy, which are interacting witheach other, is considered. The dark energy is represented by the holographic dark energy model and the interaction term is taken as proportional to the dark energy density. We have studied the cosmological evolution and analysed the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) under thermal equilibrium conditions and non-equilibrium conditions. We have found thatthe GSL is completely valid at the apparent horizon but violated at the event horizon under thermal equilibrium condition. Under thermal non-equilibrium condition, for the GSL to be valid, we found out that the temperature of the dark energy must be greater than the temperature of the apparent horizon if the dark energy behaves as a quintessence fluid.

    • Rational homoclinic solution and rogue wave solution for the coupled long-wave–short-wave system

      Chen Wei Chen Hanlin Dai Zhengde

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      In this paper, a rational homoclinic solution is obtained via the classical homoclinicsolution for the coupled long-wave–short-wave system. Based on the structures of ratinal homoclinic solution, the characteristics of homoclinic solution are discussed which might provide us with useful information on the dynamics of the relevant physical fields.

    • Comments on: “Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties of semi-organic nonlinear optical materials”

      Srinivasan Bikshandarkoil R Fernandes Royle

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      In {\it Pramana – J. Phys. } 75, 683 (2010), Gunasekaran et al reported that they have grown the nonlinear optical crystals, urea thiourea mercuric chloride (UTHC) and urea thiourea mercuric sulphate (UTHS).We argue that UTHC and UTHS are dubious crystals and are not what the authors propose.

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