• Issue front cover thumbnail

      Volume 82, Issue 2

      February 2014,   pages  1-462

    • Preface

      L M Gantayet K Dasgupta D J Biswas A K Ray J P Nilaya A K Pulhani

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    • Atomic clocks: A brief history and current status of research in India

      Poonam Arora Amrita Awasthi Vattikonda Bharath Aishik Acharya Suchi Yadav Aashish Agarwal Amitava Sen Gupta

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      Frequency corresponding to the energy difference between designated levels of an atom provides precise reference for making a universally accurate clock. Since the middle of the 20th century till now, there have been tremendous efforts in the field of atomic clocks making time the most accurately measured physical quantity. National Physical Laboratory India (NPLI) is the nation’s timekeeper and is developing an atomic fountain clock which will be a primary frequency standard. The fountain is currently operational and is at the stage of complete frequency evaluation. In this paper, a brief review on atomic time along with some of the recent results from the fountain clock will be discussed.

    • LOPUT Laser: A novel concept to realize single longitudinal mode laser

      J George K S Bindra S M Oak

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      We propose a novel type of cavity design to generate single longitudinal mode laser known as LOPUT cavity. LOPUT cavity stands for linear orthogonally polarized modes resulting in unidirectional travelling wave cavity. The technique can be applied to both isotropic as well as anisotropic gain mediums. In the present paper, we applied the technique to anisotropic gain medium such as a-cut Nd:YVO4. Using the LOPUT cavity, we demonstrated nearly 2 W of single longitudinal mode laser with nearly diffraction-limited spatial profile. Linewidth measurement using a custom-made Fabry Perot interferometer revealed instrument-limited linewidth of ∼5 MHz at 1064 nm.

    • Thermal birefringence-compensated linear intracavity frequency doubled Nd:YAG rod laser with 73 ns pulse duration and 160Wgreen output power

      S K Sharma A J Singh P K Gupta P Hedaoo P K Mukhopadhyay K Ranganathan K S Bindra S M Oak

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      In a thermally birefringence-compensated linear cavity configuration, ∼160 W of average green power by intracavity frequency doubling of AO Q-switched Nd:YAG/LBO-based laser is demonstrated. The corresponding optical to optical conversion efficiency is estimated to be ∼12.7%. The pulse repetition rate is 20 kHz with the individual pulse duration of 73 ns. The beam quality parameter is measured to be 18.

    • Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency mixing in DPSS Nd:YVO4 laser

      A J Singh P K Gupta S K Sharma P K Mukhopadhyay K S Bindra S M Oak

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      We present our studies on dual wavelength operation using a single Nd:YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum frequency generation in the cavity at an appropriate location for efficient and stable yellow output power. More than 550 mW of stable CW yellow-orange beam at 593.5 nm with beam quality parameter ($M^2$) ∼ 4.3 was obtained. The total pump to yellow beam conversion efficiency was estimated to be 3.83%.

    • Measurement of flow fluctuations in single longitudinal mode pulsed dye laser

      V S Rawat N Kawade G Sridhar Sunita Singh L M Gantayet

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      A simple technique had been demonstrated for measuring flow-induced fluctuations in the single longitudinal mode (SLM) pulsed dye laser. Two prominent frequency components of 10.74 Hz and 48.83 Hz were present in the output of the Nd:YAG-pumped SLM dye laser. The flow-induced frequency component of 48.83 Hz was present due to the revolution per minute of the motor attached to the magnetically coupled gear pump. The time average bandwidth of 180 MHz has been obtained for this SLM dye laser. The effect of pump pulse energy on the bandwidth of the SLM dye laser was studied. The bandwidth of the SLM dye laser was increased to 285 MHz from 180 MHz, when the pump pulse energy was increased to 0.75 mJ from 0.15 mJ for a constant dye flow velocity of 0.5 m/s.

    • Efficient delivery of 60 J pulse energy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser through 200 𝜇m core diameter optical fibre

      Ravindra Singh Ambar Choubey R K Jain S C Vishwakarma D K Agrawal Sabir Ali B N Upadhyaya S M Oak

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      Most of today’s industrial Nd:YAG lasers use fibre-optic beam delivery. In such lasers, fibre core diameter is an important consideration in deploying a beam delivery system. Using a smaller core diameter fibre allows higher irradiances at focus position, less degradation of beam quality, and a larger stand-off distance. In this work, we have put efforts to efficiently deliver the laser output of ‘ceramic reflector’-based long pulse Nd:YAG laser through a 200 𝜇m core diameter optical fibre and successfully delivered up to 60 J of pulse energy with 90% transmission efficiency, using a GRADIUM (axial gradient) plano-convex lens to sharply focus down the beam on the end face of the optical fibre and fibre end faces have been cleaved to achieve higher surface damage thresholds.

    • Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

      G N Tiwari R K Mishra R Khare S V Nakhe

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      Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

    • Generation of 2.1 𝜇m wavelength from degenerate high gray track resistant potassium titanyl phosphate optical parametric oscillator

      S Verma C Mishra V Kumar M Yadav K C Bahuguna N S Vasan S P Gaba

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      This paper presents the experimental results of degenerate optical parametric generation using a high gray track resistant potassium titanyl phosphate (HGTR KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). An average output power of 7 W at 10 kHz has been achieved that includes both signal and idler powers near degeneracy using 20Waverage power from a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 pump source corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 35%.

    • Multimode laser emission from dye-doped hollow polymer optical fibre

      C L Linslal Jaison Peter S Mathew M Kailasnath

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      Well-resolved multimode laser emission was observed for the first time from a freestanding microring cavity based on Rhodamine B dye-doped hollow polymer optical fibre by transverse pumping. Fibres with different diameters such as 180, 460, 640 and 800 𝜇m were fabricated from a dye-doped hollow polymer preform. A blueshift in the mode structure was observed with decrease in fibre diameter leading to wide range tunability of the laser emission.

    • Laser-assisted surface cleaning of metallic components

      Aniruddha Kumar R B Bhatt P G Behere Mohd Afzal Arun Kumar J P Nilaya D J Biswas

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      Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon and ThO2 particulates from zircaloy surface was achieved using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer from the tungsten ribbon was identified as spallation or sublimation depending on the wavelength and fluence of the coherent radiation. The oxidized and cleaned surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser-cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of neodymium atoms. The fundamental (1064 nm) and the third harmonic (355 nm) radiations were found to be the most effective in removing ThO2 particulates from the zircaloy surface. Decontamination efficiency was found to be critically dependent on the wavelength of the coherent radiation and number of exposures. The mechanism of cleaning of ThO2 particulates from the zircaloy surface at different wavelengths of the incident radiation has been explained qualitatively.

    • Versatile laser microfabrication techniques for lab-on-chip devices in general and uranium analysis in particular

      Asmita Malik S Sendhil Raja P K Gupta

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      In a plethora of microfabrication processes available now-a-days, one needs to choose the best possible option suitable for the job on-hand. This paper discusses three versatile approaches to fabricate microchips for lab-on-chip (LOC) applications in general and uranium analysis in water samples as a specific case. Laser-direct patterning succeeded by soft lithography, laser micropatterning followed by HF etching and micromilling have been demonstrated which not only suit the objective of uranium detection but also for most of the LOC applications. The different techniques elaborated enable development of LOCs in polymers as well as glass with a depth ranging from few microns to 100 𝜇m or higher while squeezing the reaction lengths of ∼10 cm on a 20 mm × 32 mm chip. This development equips one to design and develop more complicated LOC devices to take advantage of their hastened reaction cycle with minimal waste in terms of capital and maintenance cost.

    • Quantum coherent control of the vibrational dynamics of a polyatomic molecule using adaptive feedback control of a femtosecond laser

      L R Botha L E De Clercq A M Smit N Botha E Ronander H J Strydom

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      We simulate adaptive feedback control to coherently shape a femtosecond infrared laser pulse by means of a 4f-spatial light modulator in order to selectively excite the rovibrational modes of a polyatomic molecule. We preferentially populate an arbitrarily chosen upper rovibrational level by only employing these tailored temporally shaped pulses. A second laser would then allow for mode selective chemistry to interact selectively with the excited population. Alternatively the excited molecules enhanced reactivity could be exploited for selective chemistry.

    • Development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 nm radiation

      O Prakash J Kumar R Mahakud U Kumbhkar S V Nakhe S K Dixit

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      This paper reports the study on development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 nm radiation, obtained from the second harmonic generation (SHG) of copper vapour laser (CVL). The transmission and reflection spectra of the tilted fibre Bragg gratings (TFBG) were studied for the tilt angles of 0° (normal FBG), 1°, 3° and 4° between the fibre axis and the interference fringe plane. It was observed that as the angle of fibre axis and phase mask increased, the main Bragg peak shifted towards the higher wavelength and transmission dip decreased. The transmission dip of the cladding mode first increased and then decreased after reaching a maximum with the increase in the tilt angle.

    • Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide films

      C S Rajesh R Anjana S S Sreeroop C Sudha Kartha

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      Photopolymer systems can produce good image quality holograms that does not require any post-processing and are environmentally stable with good diffraction efficiency. The present work reports the development of a methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (MBPVA/AA) photopolymer system for recording white light reflection holograms. Reflection gratings were recorded in the photopolymer films with different concentrations of methylene blue (MB). Various parameters affecting the holographic properties of the samples were also studied. The holographic performance of the material is found to depend on its chemical composition and the recording parameters.

    • HF-based clad etching of fibre Bragg grating and its utilization in concentration sensing of laser dye in dye–ethanol solution

      J Kumar R Mahakud O Prakash S K Dixit

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      This paper presents a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based sensor to study the concentration of laser dye in dye–ethanol solution. The FBG used in this experiment is indigenously developed using 255 nm UV radiations from copper vapour laser. The cladding of the FBG was partially removed using HF-based etching to make FBG sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index. The experimental results on the shift of the Bragg peak wavelength with HF etching and different dye concentration in ethanol are presented. The Bragg wavelength shifted from 1534.670 nm to 1534.225 nm in 30 min and from this point to 1533.97 in the next 2 min. The clad-etched Bragg peak shifted almost linearly from 1534.056 nm to 1534.162 nm as surrounding dye concentration in ethanol changes from 0 mM to 1.5 mM. It was observed that sensitivity depends on the concentration of the solution and found to be 70 pm/mM.

    • Spectroscopy and laser characterization of synthesized supramolecular host cucurbit[7]uril using aqueous Rhodamine B dye

      Deepak R Boraste Monika Gupta Ganapati Shankarling Alok K Ray Sandip K Nayak

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      Recent demonstration in augmenting the efficiency of aqueous Rhodamine dye lasers using cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), a deaggregating and photostabilizing host, has drawn interest in the synthesis and characterization of spectroscopic grade CB[7] in larger quantities. Synthesis of cucurbituril group of macrocycles always leads to the formation of various homologues of CB[n]s (n=5–7) with CB[7] as the minor product. The literature procedure has been optimized to get pure CB[7] in 12–14% yield by fractional crystallization and the purity was checked by NMR, MS and spectrophotometric titration. Laser performances of the synthesized and commercial CB[7] sample as an additive were evaluated using Nd-YAG (532 nm) pumped Rhodamine B aqueous dye lasers and comparable results were obtained.

    • Taming fluorescence yield of dye insensitive to temperature by non-covalent complex with the host CB[7] for aqueous dye lasers

      Monika Gupta Krishna K Jagtap V Sudarsan Alok K Ray

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      Quantum yield of fluorescence (QYF) of widely used Rhodamine (RhB) dye in ethanol and water was observed to decrease rapidly with increase in temperature of the dye solutions, which was correlated to enhanced torsional motion of its flexible diethylamino groups. This is harmful for its use in high-average power dye lasers, pumped by copper vapour laser (CVL) or diodepumped solid-state green laser (DPSSGL), in which bulk temperature of the dye solution was found to increase due to the heat generated by circulation pumps and non-radiative decay processes of excited dye molecules. The QYF of RhB dye in water was found to be not sensitive to temperature in the practical operating region 16–25°C of dye laser by adopting supramolecular route to form an inclusion complex of RhB with the container molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]).

    • Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films of Y-shape chromophore with different isolation groups

      Mukesh P Joshi S Raj Mohan Balakrishna Kolli Sarada P Mishra Akshaya K Palai Tapan Kanai T S Dhami L M Kukreja A B Samui

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      We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene acting as an acceptor through conjugated bridge. The donor varies from different substituted benzene to phenothiazine. Polymer containing phenothiazine as donor showed higher SHG intensity and high temperature stability due to rigid repeating unit of phenothiazine compared to others with benzene in the main chain.

    • Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings recorded on photoresist

      Sanjiva Kumar Amrita Debnath R B Tokas K Divakar Rao D V Udupa N K Sahoo

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      The formations of sinusoidal surface relief structures recorded in positive photoresist (Allresist AR-P 3120) have been studied and optimized for different recording parameters of gratings with spatial frequency of∼1200 grooves/mm.Astable sinusoidal pattern generated using a two-beam laser interferometric technique was recorded in thin films of positive photoresist deposited on glass substrates. Several gratings were generated by varying the exposure time of interference pattern and time of chemical development of exposed media. Time duration of exposure for 90 s and chemical development for 15 s were observed to be optimum for the translation of the sinusoidal interference pattern into nearly-sinusoidal profiled grooves in the gratings for a developer AR-300-26 of dilution of 2:1 (developer:de-ionized water).

    • Electromagnetically-induced transparency in Doppler-broadened five-level systems

      Azeem B Mirza Suneel Singh

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      We study electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) of a probe field in a Dopplerbroadened five-level K-type atomic system driven by three strong laser (coupling) fields. Effect of wave-vector mismatch occurring when the coupling field frequency is higher than that of the probe field frequency ($\lambda_c < \lambda_p$) are considered. Under the influence of the coherent coupling fields, the steady-state linear susceptibility of the probe laser shows that the system can have single, double or triple EIT windows depending on the amplitude and detuning of the coupling fields.

    • Spectral narrowing of coherent population trapping resonance in laser-cooled and room-temperature atomic gas

      S Pradhan S Mishra R Behera N Kawade A K Das

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      We have investigated coherent population trapping (CPT) in laser-cooled as well as room-temperature (with and without buffer gas) rubidium atoms. The characteristic broad signal profile emerging from the two-photon Raman resonance for room-temperature atomic vapour is consistent with the theoretical calculation incorporating associated thermal averaging. The spectral width of the dark resonance obtained with cold atoms is found to be broadened, compared to roomtemperature vapour cell, due to the feeble role played by thermal averaging, although the cold atomic sample significantly overcomes the limitation of the transit time broadening. An alternative way to improve transit time is to use a buffer gas, with which we demonstrate that the coherent population trapping signal width is reduced to < 540 Hz.

    • Modulational instability of nematic phase

      T Mithun K Porsezian

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      We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in $F = 2$ spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

    • A comparative study on dual colour soft aperture cascaded second-order mode-locking with different nonlinear optical crystals

      Shyamal Mondal Satya Pratap Singh Sourabh Mukhopadhyay Aditya Date Kamal Hussain Shouvik Mukherjee Prasanta Kumar Datta

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      A comparative study in terms of optimized output power and stability is made on cascaded second-order nonlinear optical mode-locking with KTP, BBO and LBO crystals for both 1064 nm and 532 nm. Large nonlinear optical phase shift achieved in a non-phase-matched second harmonic generating crystal, is transformed into amplitude modulation through soft aperturing the nonlinear cavity mode variation at the laser gain medium to mode-lock a Nd:YVO4 laser. The laser delivers stable dual wavelength cw mode-locked pulse train with pulse duration 10.3 ps and average power of 1.84 W and 255 mW at 1064 nm and 532 nm respectively for the optimum performance in type-II KTP crystal. The exceptional stability achieved with KTP is accounted by simulating the mode-size variation with phase mismatch.

    • Picosecond nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide with different nano-morphologies

      P Harshavardhan Reddy H Sekhar D Narayana Rao

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      Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. Phase purity and crystallinity of the samples were studied by using X-ray powder diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show different morphologies like nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles. For linear and nonlinear optical measurements, the as-synthesized Cu2O with different morphologies were dispersed in isopropanol solution. The absorption spectrum recorded in the visible regions shows peaks that depend on the morphology of the particles and the peak shifts towards red region as one goes from nanoclusters to microparticles. Simple open-aperture Z-scan technique is used to measure nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide at 532 nm, 30 ps excitation at 10 Hz repetition rate. Cuprous oxide nanoclusters show reverse saturable absorption (RSA) behaviour, the microcubes and microparticles at a similar concentration exhibit saturable absorption (SA) type of behaviour at lower peak intensities and exhibit RSA within SA at higher peak intensities. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA can be ascribed to the two-photon absorption (TPA) process.

    • Observation of two-photon absorption at UV radiation in ZnS quantum dots

      Manajit Chattopadhyay Pathik Kumbhakar Udit Chatterjee

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      Research studies on quantum dots (QDs) of semiconductor materials are of potential interest in present days having promising applications in different optoelectronic devices. Among other materials, ZnS is a direct bandgap semiconductor material having a wide bandgap of 3.6 eV for its cubic phase at room temperature and it shows excellent optical properties. However, here the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of chemically synthesized ZnS QDs of average size of ∼ 1.5 nm have been reported which are measured by using an indigenously developed Z-scan technique. The pump radiation is 355 nm which is the third harmonic of the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation having pulsed duration of 10 ns with the repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measured experimental data have been analysed by using analytical models and two-photon absorption coefficients of the ZnS QDs at 355 nm have been extracted.

    • Synthesis of Cu2O, CuCl, and Cu2OCl2 nanoparticles by ultrafast laser ablation of copper in liquid media

      Syed Hamad G Krishna Podagatlapalli Surya P Tewari S Venugopal Rao

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      Copper complex nanoparticles were fabricated from bulk copper using picosecond laser ablation in water and chloroform. We found that composition of the nanoparticles was CuCl and Cu2OCl2 in chloroform at three different input fluences; Cu2O in water which was confirmed from the data of EDAX, UV-Visible absorption spectra, and selected area electron diffraction pattern. We have also performed nonlinear optical studies of colloidal nanoparticles using Z-scan technique at 800 nm and ∼2 ps laser pulses. Cu2O NPs exhibited two-photon absorption at lower peak intensities while three-photon absorption was observed at higher peak intensities. Other samples exhibited two-photon absorption at all peak intensities.

    • Impact of higher-order dispersion in the modulational instability spectrum of a relaxing coupled saturable media

      K Nithyanandan R Vasantha Jayakantha Raja T Uthayakumar K Porsezian

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      A theoretical analysis of modulational instability (MI) of optical pulses propagating near the zero dispersion wavelength of a lossless fibre with the effect of delayed saturable nonlinear response is presented. We calculate the exact dispersion relation with the effect of higher dispersion for the harmonic perturbation. We analysed the impact of fourth-order dispersion effects in the MI spectrum. We examine the possibility of MI in both dispersion regimes, regardless of the sign of the group velocity dispersion.

    • Laser shock peening of steam turbine blade for enhanced service life

      R Sundar B K Pant Harish Kumar P Ganesh D C Nagpure P Haedoo Rakesh Kaul K Ranganathan K S Bindra S M Oak L M Kukreja

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      Fretting-fatigue is an important factor influencing service life of turbine blades. The present paper describes laser shock peening of potential crack nucleation site in the root region of steam turbine blade for its enhanced service life. The experimental study, performed with an in-house developed 2.5 J/7 ns Nd:YAG laser demonstrated that laser peening introduced a residual surface compressive stress of −260 to −390 MPa. Case depth of laser peened surface layer was found to be more than 900 𝜇m.

    • Size-independent peak shift between normal and upconversion photoluminescence in MPA-capped CdTe nanoparticles

      S Ananthakumar J Jayabalan Asha Singh Salahuddin Khan Subhash Prajapati S Moorthy Babu Rama Chari

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      In this article, we report size-dependent measurement of the shift in peak of upconversion photoluminescence spectra compared to that of normal photoluminescence using a 800 nm femtosecond laser and its second harmonic. It has been shown that the upconversion photoluminescence is always red-shifted compared to that of normal PL in all the samples. By measuring the power-dependent upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL), it has been shown that the origin of UCPL from MPA-capped CdTe nanoparticles is mainly of two-photon absorption

    • Coherent oscillations of holes in GaAs0.86P0.14/Al0.7Ga0.3As surface quantum well

      Salahuddin Khan J Jayabalan Asha Singh Rama Chari Suparna Pal S Porwal T K Sharma S M Oak

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      We show that in a GaAs0.86P0.14/Al0.7Ga0.3As near-surface quantum well, there is coherent oscillation of holes observed in time-resolved reflectivity signal when the top barrier of the quantum well is sufficiently thin. The quantum well states interact with the surface states under the influence of the surface electric field. The time period of the observed oscillation is 120±10 fs.

    • Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma produced by ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse irradiation

      V Arora U Chakravarty Manoranjan P Singh J A Chakera P A Naik P D Gupta

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      Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma, produced by laser pulses of 45 fs duration, focussed up to an intensity of ∼1018 W cm-2, is carried out. The plasma conditions prevalent during the emission of X-ray spectrum were identified by comparing the experimental spectra with the synthetic spectra generated using the spectroscopic code Prism-SPECT. It is observed that He-like resonance line emission occurs from the plasma region having sub-critical density, whereas K-𝛼 emission arises from the bulk solid heated to a temperature of 10 eV by the impact of hot electrons. K-𝛼 line from Be-like ions was used to estimate the hot electron temperature. A power law fit to the electron temperature showed a scaling of $I^{0.47}$ with laser intensity.

    • CO2 laser-inscribed low-cost, shortest-period long-period fibre grating in B–Ge co-doped fibre for high-sensitivity strain measurement

      Smita Chaubey Sanjay Kher Jai Kishore S M Oak

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      We have developed high sensitivity long-period fibre gratings (LPGs) in B–Ge codoped fibre for strain sensing application. These LPGs are shortest grating period (180 𝜇m) LPGs inscribed in B–Ge co-doped fibre using CO2 laser-based grating inscription set-up. Strain sensitivity of 1.77 dB/mε has been obtained for attenuation band corresponding to the turnaround point mode. TAP operation of LPG facilitates intensity-based detection using simple optical power meter instead of wavelength-based detection.

    • Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fibre laser

      Usha Chakravarty Antony Kuruvilla Rajpal Singh B N Upadhyay K S Bindra S M Oak

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      In this paper we report linearly polarized high average power passive Q-switched ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fibre laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal as a saturable absorber. An average output power of 9.4 W with pulse duration of 64 ns and pulse repetition rate of 57.4 kHz with a slope efficiency of 52% was achieved. Measured polarization extinction ratio (PER) of the Q-switched laser output was 10.5 dB.

    • Infrared differential absorption lidar for stand-off detection of chemical agents

      A K Razdan S Veerabuthiran M K Jindal R K Sharma

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      A compact trolley-mounted pulsed transverse electric atmospheric pressure (TEA) carbon dioxide laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system capable of stand-off detection of chemical clouds in aerosol and vapour form upto about 200 m range in the atmosphere has been developed and assembled at Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC), Delhi. The system was tested successfully with diethyl ether (DEE) (a toxic industrial chemical (TIC)) and differential absorption signals at $\lambda_{\text{on}}$ (strong absorption, 9R16) and $\lambda_{\text{off}}$ (weak absorption, 10R26) wavelengths were recorded for stand-off distances upto ∼100 m (open air ground path). This paper discusses the technical details of trolley-mounted CO2 DIAL system and the data generated during the test and evaluation of this sensor using DEE aerosols.

    • Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

      Reji K Dhaman V Krishnakumar V P Mahadevan Pillai M Satyanarayana K Raghunath

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      The study on the optical characteristics of aerosol is carried out using the dual polarization lidar observations from the tropical inland station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) for the period of observation during the year 2010. The summer and monsoon observation days show high scattering ratio at the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and at the lower stratosphere region. The depolarization ratio is also high at this altitude due to the transport of particulates to the TTL layer by the active convection prevailing at the period. The study reveals more dependable values of scattering ratio that are seasonal and range-dependent.

    • Biomedical and environmental applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

      V K Unnikrishnan K S Choudhari Suresh D Kulkarni Rajesh Nayak V B Kartha C Santhosh B M Suri

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      Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, minimal sample preparation, minimal destruction, low cost and versatility of being applied to a wide range of materials. In this paper, we report the preliminary observations we obtained using LIBS for clinical and environmental samples. Elemental analysis has been done qualitatively in human teeth samples which show encouraging results. It has also been demonstrated in this paper that LIBS can be very well utilized in field applications such as plastic waste sorting and recycling.

    • Measurement of radiative lifetime in atomic samarium using simultaneous detection of laser-induced fluorescence and photoionization signals

      A C Sahoo M L Shah P K Mandal A K Pulhani G P Gupta Vas Dev B M Suri

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      In this paper, we report the investigations of lifetime measurement of odd-parity energy level 19009.52 cm-1 of Sm I using simultaneous detection of laser-induced fluorescence and laserinduced photoionization signals employing pump–probe technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is for the first time that the results obtained using laser-induced fluorescence and photoionization techniques have been compared with each other. The obtained results match well with those reported in the literature.

    • Upconversion studies in rare earth ions-doped lanthanide materials

      A K Singh K Kumar S B Rai

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      In the present work, results of upconversion emission in various powder samples have been discussed. The powder upconversion phosphors such as La2O3:Er3+/Yb3+, LaF3:Er3+/Yb3+, CeO2 :Er3+/Yb3+, CeF3:Er3+/Yb3+ were prepared and their upconversion emission, using 976 nm wavelength excitation, was investigated in depth. These phosphors have shown good upconversion emission in the visible region except for the CeF3:Er3+/Yb3+ phosphor. Two intense bands around 525 and 550 nm due to the 2H11/2$\to$4I15/2 and 4S3/2 $\to$ 4I15/2 transitions, respectively, are found to be in a thermally coupled state in these samples. The intensity ratio of these two bands permitted us to estimate the temperature of the environment. The pump power studies of the emission bands of these samples are also made to understand the dynamics of the upconversion emission.

    • Tunable third-harmonic probe for non-degenerate ultrafast pump–probe measurements

      Asha Singh Salahuddin Khan Podili Sivasankaraiah J Jayabalan Rama Chari

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      In this article, we report a method to achieve a precisely tunable highly stable probe beam generation for performing pump–probe experiment around a given wavelength by tilting a sum frequency generation (SFG) crystal angle. The width of the generated third-harmonic beam is of the order of 2 nm throughout the tunable range. This method of probe beam generation has its application in isolating contributions from closely separated excitation states.

    • Optimization of transfer of laser-cooled atom cloud to a quadrupole magnetic

      S P Ram S K Tiwari S R Mishra H S Rawat

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      We present here our experimental results on transfer of laser-cooled atom cloud to a quadrupole magnetic trap. We show that by choosing appropriately the ratio of potential energy in magnetic trap to kinetic energy of cloud in molasses, we can obtain the maximum phase-space density in the magnetic trap. These results guide us to choose the value of current to be switched in the quadrupole coils used for magnetic trapping for a given temperature of the cloud after molasses. This study is also useful to set the initial phase-space density of the cloud before evaporative cooling.

    • Time-dependent micro-Raman scattering studies of polyvinyl alcohol and silver nitrate thin films

      K Shadak Alee D Narayana Rao

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      In-situ monitoring of silver nanoparticle formation was studied in thin films of polyvinyl alcohol and silver nitrate. We proposed the observation of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a novel and simple technique to record the growth of silver nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol thin films. Observed enhancement in the Raman bands of polyvinyl alcohol is explained through the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. Influence of temperature generated by silver nanoparticles on the formation of nanoparticles is also discussed.

    • Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

      R S Verma R Dasgupta N Kumar S Ahlawat A Uppal P K Gupta

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      We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in 𝜇W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

    • Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using digital holography microscope

      Dhananjay Kumar Singh P K Panigrahi

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      In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 $\mu𝑚^2$ cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size $d_p = 2.1$ 𝜇m. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 𝜇l/min. The instantaneous 3D velocity field is obtained by correlating the particles obtained from the 3D numerical reconstruction of holograms using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV).

    • Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced deformation of dielectric-coated mirror surface by Michelson interferometer

      A Wahid S Kundu J S B Singh A K Singh A Khattar S K Maurya J S Dhumal K Dasgupta

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      AMichelson interferometer-based technique has been used to measure the deformation of dielectric-coated mirror, caused by an incident repetitive pulsed laser beam with high average power. Minimum measurable deformation of 17 nm is reported.

    • List of Participants

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  • Pramana – Journal of Physics | News

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