• Issue front cover thumbnail

      Volume 81, Issue 3

      September 2013,   pages  367-545

    • Localized structures for $(2+1)$-dimensional Boiti–Leon–Pempinelli equation

      Gui Mu Zhengde Dai Zhanhui Zhao

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      It is shown that Painlevé integrability of $(2+1)$-dimensional Boiti–Leon–Pempinelli equation is easy to be verified using the standard Weiss–Tabor–Carnevale (WTC) approach after introducing the Kruskal’s simplification. Furthermore, by employing a singular manifold method based on Painlevé truncation, variable separation solutions are obtained explicitly in terms of two arbitrary functions. The two arbitrary functions provide us a way to study some interesting localized structures. The choice of rational functions leads to the rogue wave structure of Boiti–Leon–Pempinelli equation. In addition, for the other choices, it is observed that two solitons may evolve into breather after interaction. Also, the interaction between two kink compactons is investigated.

    • The functional variable method for finding exact solutions of some nonlinear time-fractional differential equations

      Wenjun Liu Kewang Chen

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      In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system. This method is extremely simple but effective for handling nonlinear time-fractional differential equations.

    • Spin–momenta entanglement in moving frames: Properties of von Neumann entropy

      S Rastgoo M M Golshan

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      The fact that spin–momentum of massive particles become entangled (disentangled) as seen by moving observers, is used to investigate the properties of von Neumann entropy, as a measure of spin–momentum entanglement. To do so, we partition the total Hilbert space into momentum and spin subspaces so that the entanglement occurs between total spin states and total momenta of two spin-$\dfrac{1}{2}$ particles. Assuming that the occurrence of spin–momentum states is determined by Gaussian probability distributions, we show that the degree of entanglement ascends for small rapidities, reaches a maximum and diminishes at high rapidity. We further report how the characteristics of this behaviour vary as the widths of distributions change. In particular, a separable state, resulting from equal distribution widths, indeed becomes entangled in moving frames.

    • Projective synchronization of chaotic systems with bidirectional nonlinear coupling

      Mohammada Ali Khan Swarup Poria

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      This paper presents a new scheme for constructing bidirectional nonlinear coupled chaotic systems which synchronize projectively. Conditions necessary for projective synchronization (PS) of two bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems are derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed PS scheme is discussed by taking as examples the so-called unified chaotic model, the Lorenz–Stenflo system and the nonautonomous chaotic Van der Pol oscillator. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed synchronization scheme.

    • Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled nonlinear oscillators

      Awadhesh Prasad

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      A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in diffusively coupled identical oscillators. The nonlinear variation of the locus of bifurcation point is shown. Results are illustrated with Landau–Stuart (LS) and Rössler oscillators.

    • Adaptive projective synchronization between different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainties and external disturbances

      Mayank Srivastava Saurabh K Agrawal Subir Das

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      The article deals with adaptive projective synchronization between two different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the projective synchronization between a pair of different chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters are derived. An adaptive control law and a parameter update rule for uncertain parameters are designed such that the chaotic response system controls the chaotic drive system. Numerical simulation results are performed to explain the effectiveness and feasibility of the techniques.

    • On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

      Sanjay M Wagh

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      Using only the geometric relationships of suitable locations, we analyse Doppler effect in light to show how the acceleration of the source also contributes to the Doppler shift. We further propose that an experiment be performed using cyclotron-type devices to determine the acceleration dependence of the Doppler shift.

    • Charge radii of octet and decuplet baryons in chiral constituent quark model

      Neetika Sharma Harleen Dahiya

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      The charge radii of the spin-$\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ octet and spin-$\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ decuplet baryons have been calculated in the framework of chiral constituent quark model ($\chi$ CQM) using a general parametrization method (GPM). Our results are not only comparable with the latest experimental studies but also agree with other phenomenological models. The effects of $SU(3)$ symmetry breaking pertaining to the strangeness contribution and GPM parameters pertaining to the one-, two- and three-quark contributions have also been investigated in detail and are found to be the key parameters in understanding the non-zero values for the neutral octet $(n, \sum^{0}, \Xi, \Lambda)$ and decuplet $(\Lambda^{0}, \sum^{*0}, \Xi^{*0})$ baryons.

    • Higgs interchange and bound states of superheavy fermions

      M De Sanctis

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      Hypothetical superheavy fourth-generation fermions with a very small coupling with the rest of the Standard Model can give rise to long enough lived bound states. The production and the detection of these bound states would be experimentally feasible at the LHC. Extending, in the present study, the analysis of other authors, a semirelativistic wave equation is solved using an accurate numerical method to determine the binding energies of these possible superheavy fermion-bound states. The interaction given by the Yukawa potential of the Higgs boson exchange is considered; the corresponding relativistic corrections are calculated by means of a model based on the covariance properties of the Hamiltonian. We study the effects given by the Coulomb force. Moreover, we calculate the contributions given by the Coulombic and confining terms of the strong interaction in the case of superheavy quark bound states. The results of the model are critically analysed.

    • The steady state of a particle in a vibrating box and possible application in short pulse generation of charged particles

      Nandan Jha Sudhir R Jain

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      In this paper the classical evolution of a particle is studied which bounces back and forth in a 1D vibrating cavity such that the reflection from the wall does not change the speed of the particle. A peculiar behaviour of the particle motion can be seen where the time evolution of the motion shows superposition of linear and oscillatory behaviour. In particular, the parameter range is found in which the particle oscillates between the walls in steady state as if the wall was static and it is showed that for these parameter ranges the particle settles to this steady state for all initial conditions. It is proposed that this phenomenon can be used to bunch charged particles in short pulses where the synchronization proposed in our model should work against the space charge effect in the charged particle bunch.

    • Nonplanar ion-acoustic shocks in electron–positron–ion plasmas: Effect of superthermal electrons

      Deb Kumar Ghosh Prasantha Chatterjee Pankaj Kumar Mandal Biswajit Sahu

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      Ion-acoustic shock waves (IASWs) in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma, comprising superthermal electrons, positrons, and singly charged adiabatically hot positive ions are investigated via two-dimensional nonplanar Kadomstev–Petviashvili–Burgers (KPB) equation. It is found that the profiles of the nonlinear shock structures depend on the superthermality of electrons. The influence of other plasma parameters such as, ion kinematic viscosity and ion temperature, is discussed in the presence of superthermal electrons in nonplanar geometry. It is also seen that the IASWs propagating in cylindrical/spherical geometry with transverse perturbation will be deformed as time goes on.

    • On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter

      Saptarshi Mandal

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      Following the generalized definition of exclusion statistics to infinite-dimensional Hilbert space [Murthy and Shankar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3629 (1994)] for a single-component anyonic system, we derive a simple relation between second mixed virial coefficient and the mutual exclusion statistics parameters using high-temperature expansion method for multicomponent anyonic system. The above result is derived without working in a specific model and is valid in any spatial dimensions.

    • Performance assessment of nanoscale Schottky MOSFET as resonant tunnelling device: Non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism

      Zahra Ahangari Morteza Fathipour

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      A comprehensive study is performed on the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier MOSFET (SBMOSFET) in nanoscale regime, by employing the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) approach. Quantum confinement results in the enhancement of effective Schottky barrier height (SBH). High enough Schottky barriers at the source/drain and the channel form a double barrier profile along the channel that results in the formation of resonance states. We have, for the first time, proposed a resonant tunnelling device based on SBMOSFET in which multiple resonance states are modulated by the gate voltage. Role of essential factors such as temperature, SBH, bias voltage and structural parameters on the feasibility of this device for silicon-based resonant tunnelling applications are extensively studied. Resonant tunnelling appears at low temperatures and low drain voltages and as a result negative differential resistance (NDR) is apparent in the transfer characteristic. Scaling down the gate length to 6 nm increases the peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of the drain current. As the effective SBH reduces, the curvature of the double barrier profile is gradually diminished. Therefore, multiple resonant states are contributed to the current and consequently resonant tunnelling is smoothed out.

    • Thermoluminescence glow curve involving any extent of retrapping or any order of kinetics

      Jai Prakash

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      Adirovitch set of equations has been modified to explain the mechanisms involved in thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve. A simple model is proposed which explains the occurrence of TL glow curve involving any extent of retrapping or any order of kinetics. It has been observed that the extents of recombination and simultaneous rewrapping decide the order of kinetics involved. TL decay parameters, order of kinetics and initial concentration of trapped electrons per unit volume are evaluated easily and conveniently. It has been observed that retrapping increases with increasing order of kinetics.

    • Low-limit detection of NO2 by longitudinal mode selection in a photoacoustic resonant system

      F Yehya A K Chaudhary

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      The paper reports the pulsed laser-based photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy of NO2 in a resonant PA cavity with special filters made of stainless steel. The PA cell along with special types of sound filters are designed and fabricated to excite only the second-order longitudinal mode inside the cavity. The second harmonic, i.e. $\lambda = 532$ nm pulse width, of 7 ns obtained from $Q$-switched Nd:YAG laser at 10 Hz repetition rate has been used to study the saturation behaviour of the PA signal and absorption coefficient with respect to the input laser energy. Generally, the $Q$-factor of longitudinal modes in the acoustic cavities is quite low. However, by modifying the design of the cell and the filter, we can achieve high value of $Q = 30$. The combination of special filter along with the experimental data acquisition technique helped us to achieve the minimum detection concentration of NO2 of the order of 9 ppbV which is much better than the previous value of the same PA cell without filter [Yehya and Chaudhary, Appl. Phys. B 106, 953 (2012)].

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