• Issue front cover thumbnail

      Volume 75, Issue 6

      December 2010,   pages  757-1330

    • Preface

      L M Gantayet K Dasgupta Sunita Singh B M Suri D J Biswas S Sinha S Kundu

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    • An overview of some experimental and theoretical aspects of fundamental symmetry violations in atoms

      D Budker B K Sahoo D Angom B P Das

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      We present some of the advances in our experimental and theoretical studies of violations in fundamental symmetries in atoms. A part of this work was performed under the auspices of a NSF–DST project. During this period, a number of experimental techniques and theoretical methods were developed and employed for precision measurements and their interpretation from first principles. Future directions of these studies are briefly mentioned.

    • Laser resonance ionization for ultra-trace analysis on long-lived radioactive isotopes

      Christopher Geppert Klaus D A Wendt

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      Benefiting from the continuous laser developments, resonance ionization can be applied for a variety of experiments on radioactive isotopes, e.g. as a laser ion source for producing pure beams of short-lived isotopes at on-line facilities. In this paper the application of a compact set-up for resonance ionization mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of the long-lived isotope Ca-41 is described. With this set-up a purely optical selectivity of $3 \times 10^{9}$ and an overall detection efficiency of $1.2(4) \times 10^{−5}$ are demonstrated.

    • Towards using molecular ions as qubits: Femtosecond control of molecular fragmentation with multiple knobs

      Tapas Goswami Dipak K Das Debabrata Goswami

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      Non-resonant molecular fragmentation of n-propyl benzene with femtosecond laser pulses is dependent on the phase and polarization characteristics of the laser. We find that the effect of the chirp and polarization of the femtosecond pulse when applied simultaneously is mutually independent of each other, which makes chirp and polarization as useful ‘logic’ implementing knobs.

    • Mueller matrix polarimetry for the characterization of complex random medium like biological tissues

      Nirmalya Ghosh Jalpa Soni M F G Wood M A Wallenberg I A Vitkin

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      The polarization parameters of light scattered from biological tissues contain wealth of morphological and functional information of potential biomedical importance. But, in optically thick turbid media such as tissues, numerous complexities due to multiple scattering and simultaneous occurrences of many polarization events present formidable challenges, in terms of both accurate measurement and unique interpretation of the individual polarimetry characteristics. We have developed and validated an expanded Mueller matrix decomposition approach to overcome this problem. The approach was validated theoretically with a polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo light propagation model and experimentally by recording Mueller matrices from tissue-like complex random medium. In this paper, we discuss our comprehensive turbid polarimetry platform consisting of the experimental polarimetry system, forward Monte Carlo modelling and inverse polar decomposition analysis. Initial biomedical applications of this novel general method for polarimetry analysis in random media are also presented.

    • Laser-assisted cleaning: Dominant role of surface

      J Padma Nilaya D J Biswas

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      Pulsed laser-assisted removal of particulates from substrates has decided advantages over the conventional methods of cleaning. Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of transparent/semi-transparent particulates on a metal surface was found to result in an increased absorption of the incident radiation by the substrate. This effect, identified as field-enhanced surface absorption was found to increase with reduction in the average particulate size.

    • Development of evanescent wave absorbance-based fibre-optic biosensor

      T Kundu V V R Sai R Dutta S Titas P Kumar S Mukherjee

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      Development of chemical and biochemical sensors is the current need of the society. In this report, we present our investigation on the development of a label-free fibre-optic biosensor based on evanescent wave absorbance to detect the presence of analytes such as bacteria, virus and some clinically important proteins. A simple UV-LED (280 nm) and photodetector combination along with a fibre probe was used for developing cost-effective, user-friendly and field applicable device. To improve the sensitivity of the detection technique, the probe design was modified and the U-bent probe was fabricated by simple procedure. Further, to overcome the problems for using UV light source in the fibre, the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles at visible wavelength was exploited as a sensing medium for the biochemical reactions. Our systematic studies in this regard presented in this communication may bring the excitement for developing the waterborne pathogen detection device for house-hold as well as field applications.

    • Laser targets and experiments for the sake of science and energy in the 22nd century

      N G Borisenko Yu A Merkuliev

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      Laser fusion for energy and hybride schemes with laser application are original and highly tempting because they are ecofriendly, with almost unlimited resources. Though quite challenging, even development stage is fruitful in hi-tech and provides vast fundamental knowledge. The present paper discusses important results concerning target fabrication detailing several finer points of view which may not appear obvious. The current status of and achievements in targets are provided and validation experiments are discussed. The prospects and the unexpected difficulties are presented. The comparable resources and cost (unlike sizes differing orders of magnitude) for the targets and for driver over the driver’s life cycle scale prove there is no time to waste with target technology findings and validation experiments, especially in view of ignition shortly expected with National Ignition Facility.

    • Compact fibre-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering from a single femtosecond fibre-laser oscillator

      Vikas Kumar Alessio Gambetta Cristian Manzoni Roberta Ramponi Giulio Cerullo Marco Marangoni

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      We demonstrate a new approach to CARS spectroscopy by efficiently synthesizing synchronized narrow-bandwidth (less than 10 cm-1) pump and Stokes pulses (frequency difference continuously tunable upto $\sim 3000$ cm-1) based on spectral compression together with second harmonic generation (in periodically-poled nonlinear crystals) of femtosecond pulses emitted by a single compact Er-fibre oscillator. For a far better signal to non-resonant background contrast, interferometric CARS (I-CARS) is demonstrated and CARS signal enhancement upto three orders of magnitude is achieved by constructive interference with an auxiliary local oscillator at anti-Stokes field, also synthesized by spectral compression of pulses emitted from the same fibre oscillator.

    • Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even-parity atomic states of samarium by spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique

      A K Pulhani M L Shah G P Gupta B M Suri

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      Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum (𝐽) values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique 𝐽 value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in the literature.

    • Measurement of photoexcitation cross-sections of uranium by saturation method

      M L Shah R C Das P K Mandal D R Rathod Vas Dev K G Manohar B M Suri

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      We report the measurement of photoexcitation cross-sections of three first-step uranium transitions $(0 \rightarrow 16900.38$ cm-1 , $0 \rightarrow 17361.89$ cm-1 and $620 \rightarrow 17361.89$ cm-1) using saturation method. These measurements were performed on a resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) set-up consisting of Nd:YAG-pumped dye lasers, a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and high-temperature atomic vapour source. The uranium vapours were excited and photoionized by two-colour, three-photon photoionization scheme using Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser system. The resultant photoion signal was monitored as a function of dye laser fluence used for first step excitation to measure the excitation cross-section values. A new approach was adopted to overcome the large uncertainties associated with such measurements. With this approach the cross-section of transitions whose value is already reported in the literature was measured as a bench mark. By normalizing the measured value to the reported value, a scaling factor was derived. This scaling factor was used to scale up the cross-section values of other transitions measured by this method.

    • Spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: Setting up of high-performance laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system

      V K Unnikrishnan Kamlesh Alti Rajesh Nayak Rodney Bernard V B Kartha C Santhosh G P Gupta B M Suri

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      It is a well-known fact that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has emerged as one of the best analytical techniques for multi-elemental compositional analysis of samples. We report assembling and optimization of LIBS set up using high resolution and broad-range echelle spectrograph coupled to an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) to detect and quantify trace elements in environmental and clinical samples. Effects of variations of experimental parameters on spectroscopy signals of copper and brass are reported. Preliminary results of some plasma diagnostic calculations using recorded time-resolved optical emission signals are also reported for brass samples.

    • Sub-natural linewidth resonances in coherently-driven double 𝛬 system

      Niharika Singh Q V Lawande R D’souza A Ray B N Jagatap

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      We investigate theoretically the pump-probe spectroscopy of coherently-driven four-level 𝛬 system with two closely spaced excited common levels, thereby forming a double $\Lambda$ system. Using the master equation approach, analytical results are obtained for the absorption spectrum of a weak probe in the presence of a strong pump. The model is applied to the double $\Lambda$ system $5^{2} S_{1/2} F = 1, 2 \rightarrow 5^{2} P_{3/2} F' = 1, 2$ of 87Rb atom. It is shown that the absorption spectrum consists of a triplet, of which one resonance is of sub-natural linewidth depending on the atom–field interaction parameters. The effect of Doppler broadening on the absorption spectrum is also investigated.

    • Effect of ZnO doping on the structural and optical properties of BaWO 4 thin films prepared using pulsed laser ablation technique

      N Venugopalan Pillai R Vinodkumar V Ganesan Peter Koshy V P Mahadevan Pillai

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      BaWO4 doped with ZnO (2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) nanostructured films are prepared on quartz substrates by pulsed laser ablation. The films are post annealed at 900°C. GIXRD analysis of the post-annealed films reveal the change of orientation of scheelite tetragonal crystal growth from 1 1 2 reflection plane to 0 0 4 planes when doping concentration is more than 3 wt%. The AFM images show that film with 7 wt% ZnO doping concentration has good ceramic pattern with surface features giving a minimum value of rms surface roughness suitable for optoelectronic device applications. The optical transmittance and band-gap energy of the films are found to decrease considerably on post-annealing which can be due to the increase in grain size of the crystallites on annealing. Thus doping with ZnO improves the surface features of the films and increases the optical band-gap energy.

    • Effect of ambient nitrogen pressure on the formation and spatio-temporal behaviour of C2 and CN

      Archana Kushwaha R K Thareja

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      We report the effect of ambient gas on the formation as well as propagation behaviour of ablated species C2 and CN within the carbon plasma created by focussing a high-power Nd:YAG ($\lambda = 1064$ nm) laser onto the rotating graphite target in the nitrogen ambient. The formation of C2 takes place earlier as well as nearer the target compared to that of CN which forms later and far from the target, in 1.2 mbar pressure of N2 gas. Peak arrival time vs. nitrogen gas pressure plot shows a shock wave-like dependence $t \propto p^{n}$ in the pressure range 1.2–120 mbar (collisional regime) which indicates plume confinement with increases in ambient pressure. At higher pressure, thermalization takes place.

    • Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses under femtosecond pulse excitation

      C P Singh K S Bindra S M Oak

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      Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses (SDGs) are performed under femtosecond laser pulse excitation. Z-scan experiments with 800 nm wave- length pulses are used to excite SDG samples in the resonance and non-resonance regimes. Schott colour glass filter OG 515 shows stronger two-photon absorption than GG 420 and both the samples exhibit positive nonlinearity. However, in resonantly excited RG 850 the intensity-dependent Z-scan shows transition from saturable to reverse saturable absorption behaviour with the increase in intensity.

    • Study of $2\omega$ and $3/2\omega$ harmonics in ultrashort high-intensity laser plasma interaction

      V Arora P A Naik J A Chakera R A Khan P D Gupta

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      An experimental study is presented on measurements of optical spectrum of the laser light scattered from solid surface irradiated by Ti:sapphire laser pulses up to an intensity of $1.2 \times 10^{18}$ W cm-2. The spectrum has well-defined peaks at wavelengths corresponding to $2\omega$ and $3/2\omega$ radiations. The spectral features vary with the laser intensity and show blue-shift with increasing laser intensity. At a constant laser fluence, the spectrum is red-shifted with increasing laser pulse duration. The observed results are explained in terms of the density scale length variation of the plasma and laser chirp.

    • Impurities good and bad: Doped cluster nanoplasmas in intense laser fields and characterization of impurity level

      J Jha M Krishnamurthy

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      Doping of cluster-based targets can bring out considerable modifications in the evolution of the nanoplasma formed from clusters in intense laser fields. The consequence could be either an increase or, a decrease (depending upon the properties and proportion of the dopant) in the emission of the resulting charge particles or photons from nanoplasma. As we can control the percentage of CS2 in the doped Ar-CS2 cluster, we can have argon-doped CS2 cluster (when argon constitutes about 10–40%) and CS2-doped argon cluster (when fraction of CS2 is 10–40%). In the experimental studies of electron spectra and X-ray emission from pristine Ar$_{n}$ ($n \leq 25, 000$) and doped Ar-CS2 clusters at laser intensities of about 1015 W cm-2, it is observed that there is more than an order of magnitude enhancement in those emissions in doped Ar-CS2 clusters than in the former case. Conversely, a significant reduction in those emissions was found in the latter case. Such observations signify the importance of characterization of these targets. In this direction, we demonstrate a simple method for the characterization of doping level based on the Rayleigh scattering measurements.

    • Laser interaction with low-density carbon foam

      S Chaurasia S Tripathi D S Munda G Mishra C G Murali N K Gupta L J Dhareshwar A K Rossall G J Tallents Rashmi Singh D K Kohli R K Khardekar

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      Experiments were performed with a 15 J/500 ps Nd:glass laser ($\lambda = 1064$ nm) focussed to an intensity > 1014 W/cm2 . X-ray emissions from carbon foam and 5% Pt-doped carbon foam of density 150–300 mg/cc were compared with that of the solid carbon targets. The thickness of the carbon foam was 15 𝜇m on a graphite substrate. X-ray emission was measured using semiconductor X-ray diodes covered with various filters having transmissions in different X-ray spectral ranges. It covered X-ray spectrum of 0.8–8.5 keV range. The X-ray emission in the soft X-ray region was observed to increase to about 1.8 times and 2.3 times in carbon foam and Pt-doped foam, respectively with respect to solid carbon. In hard X-rays, there was no measurable difference amongst the carbon foam, Pt-doped carbon foam and solid carbon. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis demonstrates that foam targets smoothens the crater formed by the laser irradiation.

    • Surface roughness-aided hard X-ray emission from carbon nanotubes

      Suman Bagchi P Prem Kiran M K Bhuyan M Krishnamurthy K Yang A M Rao G Ravindra Kumar

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      Efficient low debris hard X-ray source based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) irradiated by intense, femtosecond laser over an intensity range of $10^{15} –10^{17}$ W cm$^{−2} \mu𝑚^{2}$ is reported. The MWNT targets yield two orders of magnitude higher X-rays (indicating significant enhancement of laser coupling) and three orders of magnitude lower debris compared to conventional metallic targets under identical experimental conditions. The simple analytical model explains the basic experimental observations and also serves as a guide to design efficient targets to achieve low-debris laser plasma-based hard X-ray sources at low laser intensities suitable for multi-kHz operation.

    • Optimization of laser hole drilling process on thick gold spherical hohlraums for intense X-ray generation

      S R Patwa S Jain P K Tripathi A S Joshi P D Gupta

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      Hohlraums of high-𝑍 materials are used as soft X-ray sources to study indirect drive fusion, equation of state of materials etc. Here, we describe a method to develop spherical gold hohlraums of large wall thickness ($\sim 70–80 \mu$m) on which laser entrance and diagnostics holes are drilled using a 10 Hz Nd:YLF laser. Holes of different diameters have been drilled with lenses of different focal lengths. The back wall of the hohlraum is protected from the damage by shutting off the laser at pre-determined hole drilling time.

    • Quasi-elastic laser light scattering study of polyacrylamide hydrogel immersed in water and salt solutions

      M Sivanantham B V R Tata

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      Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels immersed in water and aqueous NaCl solutions were investigated for their structure and dynamics using static and quasi-elastic laser light scattering (QELS) techniques. Ensemble-averaged electric field correlation function $f (q, t)$ obtained from the non-ergodic analysis of intensity-autocorrelation function for PAAm gel immersed in water and in 5 M NaCl showed an exponential decay to a plateau with an initial decay followed by saturation at long times. The value of the plateau was found to depend on NaCl concentration and was higher than that of water. Collective diffusion coefficient, 𝐷, of the polymer network of the hydrogel immersed in water and in different concentrations of NaCl was determined by analysing $f (q, t)$. The measured diffusion coefficient showed linear decrease with increase in concentration of NaCl. The characteristic network parameters were obtained by analyzing $f (q, t)$ with harmonically bound Brownian particle model and from static light scattering studies.

    • A confocal laser scanning microscopic study on thermoresponsive binary microgel dispersions incorporated with CdTe quantum dots

      J Brijitta B V R Tata K Saravanan B K Panigrahi T Kaliyappan

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      Monodisperse poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) particles loaded with cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) of two different sizes (4.7 nm and 5.6 nm) were synthesized in aqueous medium by bonding the capping agent on the quantum dots to the amide groups of PNIPAM and incubating the samples at 45° C. A huge increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity (green and red regions) is observed for the PNIPAM–CdTe QDs composites compared to the parent CdTe QDs. We report here for the first time the imaging of binary dispersion of green and red luminescent PNIPAM–CdTe QDs composites using a fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope. These composites have potential applications both in material science and biology.

    • Femtosecond laser-fabricated microstructures in bulk poly(methylmethacrylate) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) at 800 nm towards lab-on-a-chip applications

      K L N Deepak S Venugopal Rao D Narayana Rao

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      Laser direct writing technique is employed to fabricate microstructures, including gratings (buried and surface) and two-dimensional photonic crystal-like structures, in bulk poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using $\sim 100$ femtosecond (fs) pulses. The variation of structure size with different writing conditions (focussing, speed and energy) was investigated in detail. Diffraction efficiencies of the gratings were calculated and the changes in diffraction efficiency (DE) as a function of period, energy and scanning speed were evaluated. Highest diffraction efficiencies of 34% and 10%, for the first order, were obtained in PMMA and PDMS respectively. Heat treatment of these gratings demonstrated small improvement in the diffraction efficiency. Several applications resulting from these structures are discussed. Fs modification in PMMA and PDMS demonstrated emission when excited at a wavelength of 514 nm. We attempted to prepare buried waveguides in PMMA with higher refractive index at the core. We have successfully fabricated branched and curved structures in PMMA and PDMS finding impending applications in microfluidics.

    • Cavity ring-down technique for measurement of reflectivity of high reflectivity mirrors with high accuracy

      G Sridhar Sandeep K Agarwalla Sunita Singh L M Gantayet

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      A simple, accurate and reliable method for measuring the reflectivity of laser-grade mirrors ($R$ > 99.5%) based on cavity ring-down (CRD) technique has been success-fully demonstrated in our laboratory using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A fast photomultiplier tube with an oscilloscope was used to detect and analyse the CRD signal. The cavity decay times were measured for three cavities formed by a combination of three mirror pairs. The absolute reflectivities $R_{1}$, $R_{2}$, $R_{3}$ were determined to be 99.94%, 99.63%, 99.52% at normal incidence. The reflectivity of mirrors is measured to an accuracy of 0.01%.

    • Recording multiple holographic gratings in silver-doped photopolymer using peristrophic multiplexing

      V Pramitha Rani Joseph K Sreekumar C Sudha Kartha

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      Plane-wave transmission gratings were stored in the same location of silver-doped photopolymer film using peristrophic multiplexing techniques. Constant and variable exposure scheduling methods were adopted for storing gratings in the film using He–Ne laser (632.8 nm). The role of recording geometry on the dynamic range of the material was studied by comparing the results obtained from both techniques. Peristrophic multiplexing with rotation of the film in a plane normal to the bisector of the incident beams resulted in better homogenization of diffraction efficiencies and larger $M /#$ value.

    • Laser yellowing

      M B Sai Prasad Salvatore Siano

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      Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in researches related to the application of lasers in conservation, analysis and diagnostics of artwork surfaces. Among the many interesting problems to be tackled, one issue was drawing more interest because of the limitations it can impose on the use of lasers. Laser yellowing is a phenomenon wherein artwork surfaces assume a yellow hue when cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers in particular. Here the effect of yellowing has been studied and quantified for artwork surfaces (marble) using SFR Nd:YAG and LQS Nd:YAG lasers. Colorimetric measurements by employing a spectroradiometer helps to quantify the effect of yellowing by analysing three variables (chromaticity coordinates) of interest.

    • Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and zircaloy for nuclear applications

      R K Jain D K Agrawal S C Vishwakarma A K Choubey B N Upadhyaya S M Oak

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      In nuclear field, underwater cutting and welding technique is required for post-irradiation examination, maintenance, decommissioning and to reduce storage space of irradiated materials like used zircaloy pressure tubes etc., of nuclear power plants. We have developed underwater cutting technique for 4.2 mm thick zircaloy pressure tubes and up to 6 mm thick steel using fibre-coupled 250 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This underwater cutting technique will be highly useful in various nuclear applications as well as in dismantling/repair of ship and pipe lines in water.

    • Solidification and microstructural aspects of laser-deposited Ni–Mo–Cr–Si alloy on stainless steel

      Reena Awasthi Santosh Kumar D Srivastava G K Dey

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      Laser cladding of stainless steel substrate was carried out using Ni–32Mo–15Cr–3Si (wt%) alloy powder. Laser cladding parameters were optimized to obtain defect-free and metallurgically bonded clad. Variation in solidification rate, cooling rate and compositional variation resulted in heterogeneous microstructure. Microstructure was found to be distinctly different in regions of clad cross-section. Majority of the region was found to consist of eutectic of Mo-rich hcp intermetallic Laves phase and NiFe fcc gamma solid solution phases. Extensive microstructural examinations of different clad regions have been carried out using microscopy and microanalysis techniques.

    • Laser pulse heating of nuclear fuels for simulation of reactor power transients

      C S Viswanadham K C Sahoo T R G Kutty K B Khan V P Jathar S Anantharaman Arun Kumar G K Dey

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      It is important to study the behaviour of nuclear fuels under transient heating conditions from the point of view of nuclear safety. To simulate the transient heating conditions occurring in the known reactor accidents like loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and reactivity initiated accident (RIA), a laser pulse heating system is under development at BARC, Mumbai. As a prelude to work on irradiated nuclear fuel specimens, pilot studies on unirradiated UO2 fuel specimens were carried out. A laser pulse was used to heat specimens of UO2 held inside a chamber with an optically transparent glass window. Later, these specimens were analysed by metallography and X-ray diffraction. This paper describes the results of these studies.

    • Green laser photocoagulator for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology

      S M Oak

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      An all-solid-state green laser photocoagulator at 532 nm with output power varying from 100 mW to 1 W in a step of 10 mW and exposure time varying from 50 ms to 1000 ms in a step of 10 ms is developed for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The output power stability is better than $\pm 1.5%$ with a nearly diffraction-limited beam quality. The system includes various safety and operational features like internal power monitoring system, safety interlock, emergency switch-off, graphical LCD display with table-top touch mode portable control panel, smart delivery device selection, aiming laser beam with controllable intensity, foot switch, patient records, service mode etc. The system has successfully passed the clinical trials and is being used on patients.

    • Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet transform and principal component analysis

      Anita Gharekhan Ashok N Oza M B Sureshkumar Asima Pradhan Prasanta K Panigrahi

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      Fluorescence characteristics of human breast tissues are investigated through wavelet transform and principal component analysis (PCA). Wavelet transform of polarized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues is found to localize spectral features that can reliably differentiate different tissue types. The emission range in the visible wavelength regime of 500–700 nm is analysed, with the excitation wavelength at 488 nm using laser as an excitation source, where flavin and porphyrin are some of the active fluorophores. A number of global and local parameters from principal component analysis of both high- and low-pass coefficients extracted in the wavelet domain, capturing spectral variations and subtle changes in the diseased tissues are clearly identifiable.

    • Development and evaluation of an optical fibre-based helium–neon laser irradiation system for tissue regeneration: A pilot study

      Vijendra Prabhu B S Satish Rao B Nageshwara Rao B Kiran Aithal B Satish Shenoy K K Mahato

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      Low level laser therapy is being extensively used to treat various medical ailments including wound healing. In the present study, an optical fibre-based helium–neon (He–Ne) laser irradiation system was designed, developed and evaluated for optimum tissue repair on mice excision wounds. Circular wounds of 15 mm diameter were created on the dorsum of animals and single exposure of uniformly distributed laser beam was administered at 1, 2 and 3 J/cm2 to the respective test groups with suitable controls. Progression of healing was monitored by measuring wound contraction and mean healing time. Significant reduction in wound size and mean healing time ($p < 0.001$) were observed in the test groups for the laser dose of 2 J/cm2 compared to the unilluminated controls, suggesting the suitability of this dose.

    • List of participants

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    • National Advisory Committee

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    • Subject Index

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    • Author Index

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