pp 955-957 June 2008
pp 959-963 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
I summarize here the remarks made at the closing of the Conference and Research Workshop: Perspectives on Nonlinear Dynamics, held in Trieste in July 2007.
pp 965-988 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
The Macintosh application StdMap allows easy exploration of many of the phenomena of area-preserving mappings. This tutorial explains some of these phenomena and presents a number of simple experiments centered on the use of this program.
pp 989-1007 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
In this paper I give a short and elementary review of numerical simulations in granular assemblies, giving the process of discharge of a 2D silo as an example. The strengths and limitations of different approaches are discussed, together with some comments on the specific issues related to the numerics of discontinuous dissipative collisions.
pp 1009-1021 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
In contrast with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with injection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and turbulent domains at intermediate Reynolds numbers, well below the range where (viscous) instabilities can show up. There can even be no unstable mode at all, as for plane Couette flow (pCf) or for Poiseuille pipe flow (Ppf) that are currently the subject of intense research. Though the mechanisms involved in the transition to turbulence in wall flows are now better understood, statistical properties of the transition itself are yet unsatisfactorily assessed. A widely accepted interpretation rests on non-trivial solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the form of unstable travelling waves and on transient chaotic states associated to chaotic repellors. Whether these concepts typical of the theory of temporal chaos are really appropriate is yet unclear owing to the fact that, strictly speaking, they apply when confinement in physical space is effective while the physical systems considered are rather extended in at least one space direction, so that spatiotemporal behaviour cannot be ruled out in the transitional regime. The case of pCf will be examined in this perspective through numerical simulations of a model with reduced cross-stream $(y)$ dependence, focusing on the in-plane $(x, z)$ space dependence of a few velocity amplitudes. In the large aspect-ratio limit, the transition to turbulence takes place via spatiotemporal intermittency and we shall attempt to make a connection with the theory of first-order (thermodynamic) phase transitions, as suggested long ago by Pomeau.
pp 1023-1029 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
We explore the nature of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in a curved FermiPasta-Ulam (FPU) chain and the effects of geometry and second-neighbor interaction on the localization and movability properties of such modes. We determine analytically the structure of the localized modes induced by an isotopic light-mass impurity in this chain. We further demonstrate that a nonlinear impurity mode may be treated as a bound state of an ILM with the impurity.
pp 1031-1037 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
The dynamics of inertial particles in 2-d incompressible flows can be modeled by 4-d bailout embedding maps. The density of the inertial particles, relative to the density of the fluid, is a crucial parameter which controls the dynamical behaviour of the particles. We study here the dynamical behaviour of aerosols, i.e. particles heavier than the flow. An attractor widening and merging crisis is seen in the phase space in the aerosol case. Crisis-induced intermittency is seen in the time series and the laminar length distribution of times before bursts give rise to a power law with the exponent $\beta = -1/3$. The maximum Lyapunov exponent near the crisis fluctuates around zero indicating unstable dimension variability (UDV) in the system. The presence of unstable dimension variability is confirmed by the behaviour of the probability distributions of the finite time Lyapunov exponents.
pp 1039-1045 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
The transitions from or to strange nonchaotic attractors are investigated by recurrence plot-based methods. The techniques used here take into account the recurrence times and the fact that trajectories on strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs) synchronize. The performance of these techniques is shown for the Heagy-Hammel transition to SNAs and for the fractalization transition to SNAs for which other usual nonlinear analysis tools are not successful.
pp 1047-1053 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
We analyze the relationship between the macroscopic and microscopic descriptions of two-state systems, in particular the regime in which the microscopic one shows sustained `stochastic oscillations' while the macroscopic tends to a fixed point. We propose a quantification of the oscillatory appearance of the fluctuating populations, and show that good stochastic oscillations are present if a parameter of the macroscopic model is small, and that no microscopic model will show oscillations if that parameter is large. The transition between these two regimes is smooth. In other words, given a macroscopic deterministic model, one can know whether any microscopic stochastic model that has it as a limit, will display good sustained stochastic oscillations.
pp 1055-1061 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
The phase diagram of the coupled sine circle map system exhibits a variety of interesting phenomena including spreading regions with spatiotemporal intermittency, non-spreading regions with spatial intermittency, and coherent structures termed solitons. A spreading to non-spreading transition is seen in the system. A cellular automaton version of the coupled system maps the spreading to non-spreading transition to a transition from a probabilistic to a deterministic cellular automaton. The solitonic sector of the system shows spatiotemporal intermittency with soliton creation, propagation and absorption. A probabilistic cellular automaton mapping is set up for this sector which can identify each one of these phenomena.
pp 1063-1076 June 2008 Reviews and Methods
We study the relationship between synchronization and the rate with which information is exchanged between nodes in a spatio-temporal network that describes the dynamics of classical particles under a substrate Remoissenet-Peyrard potential. We also show how phase and complete synchronization can be detected in this network. The difficulty in detecting phase synchronization in such a network appears due to the highly non-coherent character of the particle dynamics which unables a proper definition of the phase dynamics. The di±culty in detecting complete synchronization appears due to the spatio character of the potential which results in an asymptotic state highly dependent on the initial state.
pp 1077-1085 June 2008 Applications
In this work we report experimental measurements of pressure patterns used in canary song. We find that these patterns are qualitatively similar to the subharmonic solutions of a simple dynamical system. This is built to account for the activities of subpopulations of neurons arranged in a simple architecture compatible with anatomical observations. The consequences of Hebbian plasticity in the coupling between the driving and the driven systems are outlined.
pp 1087-1097 June 2008 Applications
Recent research has revealed a rich and complicated network topology in the cortical connectivity of mammalian brains. A challenging task is to understand the implications of such network structures on the functional organisation of the brain activities. We investigate synchronisation dynamics on the corticocortical network of the cat by modelling each node of the network (cortical area) with a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons. We find that this network of networks displays clustered synchronisation behaviour and the dynamical clusters closely coincide with the topological community structures observed in the anatomical network. The correlation between the firing rate of the areas and the areal intensity is additionally examined. Our results provide insights into the relationship between the global organisation and the functional specialisation of the brain cortex.
pp 1099-1108 June 2008 Applications
In the dynamic processes on networks collective effects emerge due to the couplings between nodes, where the network structure may play an important role. Interaction along many network links in the nonlinear dynamics may lead to a kind of chaotic collective behavior. Here we study two types of well-de¯ned diffusive dynamics on scale-free trees: traffic of packets as navigated random walks, and chaotic standard maps coupled along the network links. We show that in both cases robust collective dynamic effects appear, which can be measured statistically and related to non-ergodicity of the dynamics on the network. Specifically, we find universal features in the fluctuations of time series and appropriately defined return-time statistics.
pp 1109-1116 June 2008 Applications
We study message transfer in a 2-d communication network of regular nodes and randomly distributed hubs. We study both single message transfer and multiple message transfer on the lattice. The average travel time for single messages travelling between source and target pairs of fixed separations shows 𝑞-exponential behaviour as a function of hub density with a characteristic power-law tail, indicating a rapid drop in the average travel time as a function of hub density. This power-law tail arises as a consequence of the log-normal distribution of travel times seen at high hub densities. When many messages travel on the lattice, a congestion-decongestion transition can be seen. The waiting times of messages in the congested phase show a Gaussian distribution, whereas the decongested phase shows a log-normal distribution. Thus the waiting time distributions carry the signature of congested or decongested behaviour.
pp 1117-1125 June 2008 Applications
We review our recent work on the synchronization of a network of delay-coupled maps, focusing on the interplay of the network topology and the delay times that take into account the finite velocity of propagation of interactions. We assume that the elements of the network are identical (𝑁 logistic maps in the regime where the individual maps, without coupling, evolve in a chaotic orbit) and that the coupling strengths are uniform throughout the network. We show that if the delay times are su±ciently heterogeneous, for adequate coupling strength the network synchronizes in a spatially homogeneous steady state, which is unstable for the individual maps without coupling. This synchronization behavior is referred to as `suppression of chaos by random delays' and is in contrast with the synchronization when all the interaction delay times are homogeneous, because with homogeneous delays the network synchronizes in a state where the elements display in-phase time-periodic or chaotic oscillations. We analyze the influence of the network topology considering four different types of networks: two regular (a ring-type and a ring-type with a central node) and two random (free-scale Barabasi-Albert and small-world Newman-Watts). We find that when the delay times are sufficiently heterogeneous the synchronization behavior is largely independent of the network topology but depends on the network's connectivity, i.e., on the average number of neighbors per node.
pp 1127-1134 June 2008 Applications
We study a network of chaotic model neurons incorporating threshold activated coupling. We obtain a wide range of spatiotemporal patterns under varying degrees of asynchronicity in the evolution of the neuronal components. For instance, we find that sequential updating of threshold-coupled chaotic neurons can yield dynamical switching of the individual neurons between two states. So varying the asynchronicity in the updating scheme can serve as a control mechanism to extract different responses, and this can have possible applications in computation and information processing.
pp 1135-1142 June 2008 Applications
The structural entropy is the entropy of the ensemble of uncorrelated networks with given degree sequence. Here we derive the most probable degree distribution emerging when we distribute stubs (or half-edges) randomly through the nodes of the network by keeping fixed the structural entropy. This degree distribution is found to decay as a Poisson distribution when the entropy is maximized and to have a power-law tail with an exponent $\gamma \rightarrow 2$ when the entropy is minimized.
pp 1143-1151 June 2008 Synchronization
Here we present a system of coupled phase oscillators with nearest neighbors coupling, which we study for different boundary conditions. We concentrate at the transition to the total synchronization. We are able to develop exact solutions for the value of the coupling parameter when the system becomes completely synchronized, for the case of periodic boundary conditions as well as for a chain with fixed ends. We compare the results with those calculated numerically.
pp 1153-1164 June 2008 Synchronization
Here we introduce a model of parametrically coupled chaotic maps on a one-dimensional lattice. In this model, each element has its internal self-regulatory dynamics, whereby at fixed intervals of time the nonlinearity parameter at each site is adjusted by feedback from its past evolution. Additionally, the maps are coupled sequentially and unidirectionally, to their nearest neighbor, through the difference of their parametric variations. Interestingly we find that this model asymptotically yields clusters of superstable oscillators with different periods. We observe that the sizes of these oscillator clusters have a power-law distribution. Moreover, we find that the transient dynamics gives rise to a $1/f$ power spectrum. All these characteristics indicate self-organization and emergent scaling behavior in this system. We also interpret the power-law characteristics of the proposed system from an ecological point of view.
pp 1165-1174 June 2008 Synchronization
We study sets of genetic networks having stochastic oscillatory dynamics. Depending on the coupling topology we find regimes of phase synchronization of the dynamical variables. We consider the effect of time-delay in the interaction and show that for suitable choices of delay parameter, either in-phase or anti-phase synchronization can occur.
pp 1175-1198 June 2008 Synchronization
Theory of identical or complete synchronization of identical oscillators in arbitrary networks is introduced. In addition, several graph theory concepts and results that augment the synchronization theory and a tie in closely to random, semirandom, and regular networks are introduced. Combined theories are used to explore and compare three types of semirandom networks for their efficacy in synchronizing oscillators. It is shown that the simplest 𝑘-cycle augmented by a few random edges or links are the most efficient network that will guarantee good synchronization.
pp 1199-1201 June 2008
pp 1203-1209 June 2008
pp 1211-1217 June 2008
pp 1218-1224 June 2008
Volume 93 | Issue 6
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