• Issue front cover thumbnail

      Volume 68, Issue 4

      April 2007,   pages  535-706

    • Painlevé test for integrability for a combination of Yang’s self-dual equations for $SU (2)$ gauge fields and Charap's equations for chiral invariant model of pion dynamics and a comparative discussion among the three

      Susanto Chakraborty Pranab Krishna Chandra

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      Painlevé test for integrability for the combined equations generated from Yang's self-dual equations for $SU (2)$ gauge fields and Charap's equations for chiral invariant model of pion dynamics faces some peculiar situations that allow none of the stages (leading order analysis, resonance calculation and checking of the existence of the requisite number of arbitrary functions) to be conclusive. It is also revealed from a comparative study with the previous results that the existence of abnormal behaviour at any of the stated stages may have a correlation with the existence of chaotic property or some other properties that do not correspond to solitonic behaviour.

    • Systematic study of spatiotemporal dynamics of intense femtosecond laser pulses in BK-7 glass

      Ram Gopal V Deepak S Sivaramakrishnan

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      In this paper we present a systematic study of the spatial and temporal effects of intense femtosecond laser pulses in BK-7 over a broad range of input powers, 1–1000 times the critical power for self-focusing ($P_{cr}$) by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). Most numerical studies have not been extended to such high powers. A clear-cut classification of spatio-temporal dynamics up to very high powers into three regimes – the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) regime, the ionization regime and the dominant plasma regime – as done here, is a significant step towards a better understanding. Further, we examine in detail the role of GVD in channel formation by comparing BK-7 to an `artificial' medium. Our investigations bring forth the important observation that diffraction plays a minimal role in the formation of multiple cones and that plasma plays a diffraction-like role at very high powers. A detailed study of the spatio-temporal dynamics in any condensed medium over this range of powers has not been reported hitherto, to the best of our knowledge. We also suggest appropriate operational powers for various applications employing BK-7 on the basis of our results.

    • An alternative method to specify the degree of resonator stability

      Jogy George K Ranganathan T P S Nathan

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      We present an alternative method to specify the stability of real stable resonators. We introduce the degree of optical stability or the 𝑆 parameter, which specify the stability of resonators in a numerical scale ranging from 0 to 100%. The value of zero corresponds to marginally stable resonator and $S < 0$ corresponds to unstable resonator. Also, three definitions of the S parameter are provided: in terms of $A&D$, $B&Z_{\text{R0}}$ and $g_{1}g_{2}$. It may be noticed from the present formalism that the maximum degree of stability with $S = 1$ automatically corresponds to $g_{1}g_{2} = 1/2$. We also describe the method to measure the 𝑆 parameter from the output beam characteristics and 𝐵 parameter. A possible correlation between the 𝑆 parameter and the misalignment tolerance is also discussed.

    • Phase knife-edge laser Schlieren diffraction interferometry with boundary diffraction wave theory

      Raj Kumar D Mohan Sushil K Kaura D P Chhachhia A K Aggarwal

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      Within the framework of boundary diffraction wave theory it has been shown that the first bright fringe on either side of the central dark fringe of the phase knife-edge Fresnel diffraction pattern could be broadened to cover the whole field of view. Broadening of the first diffraction fringe, instead of conventionally modifying the spatial frequency spectrum, enhances the sensitivity of the Schlieren system. The use of phase knife-edge as viewing diaphragm in Schlieren diffraction interferometry not only enhances the fringe contrast but also avoids the loss in phase information as it lets through light from all parts of the test object and its thin interfacing makes the method suitable even for studying weak disturbances.

    • A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical position control of plasma in a tokamak

      Nizami Gasilov

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      In designing tokamaks, the maintenance of vertical stability of plasma is one of the most important problems. Systems of the passive and active feedbacks are applied for this purpose. Role of the passive system consisting of a vacuum vessel and passive coils is to suppress fast MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) instabilities. The active feedback system is applied to control slow motions of plasma.

      The objective of the paper is to investigate two successive problems, solution of which allows to determine the possibility of controlling plasma motions. One of these is the problem of vertical stability under the assumption of ideal conductivity of plasma and passive stabilizing elements. The problem is solved analytically and on the basis of the obtained solution a criterion of MHD-stability is formulated. The other problem is connected with the control of plasma vertical position with active feedback system. Calculation of feedback control parameters is formulated as an optimization problem and an approximate method to solve the problem is suggested. Numerical simulations are performed with parameters of the T-15M tokamak in order to justify the suggested method.

    • Detection of accelerated particles from pulsed plasma discharge using solid state nuclear track detector

      G M El-Aragi U Seddik A Abd El-Haliem

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      The ion beam of a Mather-type 23.25 J plasma focus device operated with air filling at 10 Torr was registered using CR-39 nuclear track detector. The irradiated samples were etched in NaOH solution at $70^{\circ}$C for 1 h. It is found here that plasma beam contains multi-components of microbeams. The individual track density of microbeams is estimated and the total current density of the plasma stream is measured to be 1.2 mA/cm2. A model for counting the track density of individual microbeams is proposed here. Faraday cup measurements showed the ion pulse with energy ranging from 5.8 keV to 3.3 keV.

    • Effect of upflowing field-aligned electron beams on the electron cyclotron waves in the auroral magnetosphere

      Sushil Kumar S K Singh A K Gwal

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      The role of low density upflowing field-aligned electron beams (FEBs) on the growth rate of the electron cyclotron waves at the frequencies $\omega_{r}$ < $\Omega_{­e}$, propagating downward in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field, has been analysed in the auroral region at $\omega_{e}/\Omega_{e}$ < 1 where $\omega_{e}$ is the plasma frequency and $\Omega_{­e}$ is the gyrofrequency. The FEBs with low to high energy ($E_{b}$) but with low temperature ($T_{|b}$) have no effect on these waves. The FEBs with $E_{b}$ < 1 keV and $T_{|b}$ (> 1.5 keV) have been found to have significant effect on the growth rate. Analysis has revealed that it is mainly the $T_{|b}$ which inhibits the growth rate (magnitude) and the range of frequency (bandwidth) of the instability mainly in the higher frequency spectrum. The inhibition in the growth rate and bandwidth increases with increase in $T_{|b}$. The FEBs with less $E_{b}$ (giving drift velocity) reduce growth rate more than the beams with larger $E_{b}$. The inhibition of growth rate increases with the increase in the ratio $\omega_{e}/\Omega_{e}$ indicating that the beams are more effective at higher altitudes.

    • Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency property

      C J Jahagirdar L B Tiwari

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      Polyester fabric is treated with DCDMS solution by two methods: dipping the fabric directly in DCDMS solution for different intervals and dipping the fabric in DCDMS solution after its exposure into RF plasma chamber for different durations at optimized exposure power conditions. The physical properties of polyester fabric treated with DCDMS in the presence or absence of air plasma have been compared with control fabric. Different characterization techniques like scanning electron microscope, attenuated total reflectance-IR and Dataflash 100 colour measurement spectrophotometer are used to assess the surface morphology, composition and change in colour parameters. Water repellency property of both untreated and modified polyester fabric is studied using AATCC test method 39 (1971). The effectiveness of the water repellency property of modified polyester fabric is checked by repeated washing up to ten cycles.

    • Application of inertia-induced excitation theory for nonlinear acoustic modes in colloidal plasma equilibrium flow

      P K Karmakar

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      Application of inertia-induced acoustic excitation theory offers a new resonant excitation source channel of acoustic turbulence in the transonic domain of plasma flow. In bi-ion plasmas like colloidal plasma, two well-defined transonic points exist corresponding to the parent ion and the dust grain-associated acoustic modes. As usual, the modified ion acoustic mode (also known as dust ion-acoustic (DIA) wave) dynamics associated with parent ion inertia is excitable for both nanoscale- and micronscale-sized dust grains. It is found that the so-called (ion) acoustic mode (also known as dust-acoustic (DA) wave) associated with nanoscale dust grain inertia is indeed resonantly excitable through the active role of weak but finite parent ion inertia. It is interestingly conjectured that the same excitation physics, as in the case of normal plasma sound mode, operates through the active inertial role of plasma thermal species. Details of the nonlinear acoustic mode analyses of current interest in transonic domains of such impure plasmas in hydrodynamic flow are presented.

    • Structural phase transition and elastic properties of thorium pnictides at high pressure

      Kuldeep Kholiya B R K Gupta

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      In the present paper we have pointed out the weaknesses of the approach by Aynyas et al [1] to study the structural phase transition and elastic properties of thorium pnictides. The calculated values of phase transition pressure and other elastic properties using the realistic and actual approach are also given and compared with the experimental and previous theoretical work.

    • Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

      Hitesh Sharma S Prakash

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      We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and Harrison interatomic potential is used to calculate the atomic force constants, the dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces. We have thoroughly investigated the atomic displacements using impurities from 3d, 4d and 5d series in the same host metal and the same impurity in different hosts. We have observed a systematic pattern in the atomic displacements for Cr-, Fe-, Nb-, Mo-, Ta- and W-based dilute alloys. The atomic displacements are found to increase with increase in the number of d electrons for all alloys considered except for V dilute alloys. The 3d impurities are found to be more easily dissolved in the 3d host metals than 4d or 5d TMs whereas 4d and 5d impurities show more solubility in 4d and 5d TMs. In general, the relaxation energy calculation suggests that impurities may be easily solvable in 5d TM hosts when compared to 3d or 4d TMs.

    • Synthesis and characterization of Mn2+-doped ZnS nanoparticles

      B S Rema Devi R Raveendran A V Vaidyan

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      Mn2+-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by chemical arrested precipitation method. The samples were heated at 300, 500, 700 and 900°C. The average particle size was determined from the X-ray line broadening. Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV. The composition was verified by EDAX spectrum. The hexagonal structure of the sample was identified. The size of the particles increased as the annealing temperature was increased. The crystallite size varied from 5 nm to 34 nm as the calcination temperature increased. At around $700^{\circ}$C, ZnS is converted into ZnO phase due to oxidation. The emission peak of the sample is observed at 300 nm resulting in blue emission. The solid state theory based on the delocalized electron and hole within the confined volume can explain the blue-shifted optical absorption spectra. UV-VIS spectro-photometric measurement shows an indirect allowed band gap of 3.65 eV.

    • Damage spreading on networks: Clustering effects

      Z Z Guo Xiao-Wei Wu Chun-An Wang

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      The damage spreading of the Ising model on three kinds of networks is studied with Glauber dynamics. One of the networks is generated by evolving the hexagonal lattice with the star-triangle transformation. Another kind of network is constructed by connecting the midpoints of the edges of the topological hexagonal lattice. With the evolution of these structures, damage spreading transition temperature increases and a general explanation for this phenomenon is presented from the view of the network. The relationship between the transition temperature and the network measure-clustering coefficient is set up and it is shown that the increase of damage spreading transition temperature is the result of more and more clustering of the network. We construct the third kind of network-random graphs with Poisson degree distributions by changing the average degree of the network. We show that the increase in the average degree is equivalent to the clustering of nodes and this leads to the increase in damage spreading transition temperature.

    • Frequency dependence of junction capacitance of BPW34 and BPW41 p-i-n photodiodes

      Habibe Bayhan Şadan Özden

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      This article investigates the frequency dependence of small-signal capacitance of silicon BPW34 and BPW41 (Vishay) p-i-n photodiodes. We show that the capacitance-frequency characteristics of these photodiodes are well-described by the Schibli and Milnes model. The activation energy and the concentration of the dominant trap levels detected in BPW34 and BPW41 are 280{330 meV and $1.1 \times 10^{12} - 1.2 \times 10^{12}$ cm-3, respectively. According to the high-frequency $C-V$ measurements, the impurity concentrations are determined to be about $5.3 \times 10^{12}$ and $1.9 \times 10^{13}$ cm-3 in BPW41 and BPW34, respectively using the method of $\Delta V/ \Delta (C^{-2})$ vs. 𝐶.

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