• Volume 67, Issue 2

      August 2006,   pages  227-400

    • Magnetized cosmological models in bimetric theory of gravitation

      S D Katore R S Rane

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      Bianchi type-III magnetized cosmological model when the field of gravitation is governed by either a perfect fluid or cosmic string is investigated in Rosen’s [1] bimetric theory of gravitation. To complete determinate solution, the condition, viz., A=(BC)n, where n is a constant, between the metric potentials is used. We have assumed different equations of state for cosmic string [2] for the complete solution of the model. Some physical and geometrical properties of the exhibited model are discussed and studied.

    • Møller’s energy in the dyadosphere of a charged black hole

      Oktay Aydogdu Mustafa Salti

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      We use the Møller energy-momentum complex both in general relativity and teleparallel gravity to evaluate energy distribution (due to matter plus fields including gravity) in the dyadosphere region for Reissner-Nordström black hole. We found the same and acceptable energy distribution in these different approaches of the Møller energy-momentum complex. Our teleparallel gravitational result is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any teleparallel model. This paper sustains (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given space-time and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the Møller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept for energy and momentum.

    • On the exact solutions of nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities

      R S Kaushal Ranjit Kumar Awadhesh Prasad

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      Attempts have been made to look for the soliton content in the solutions of the recently studied nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations [R S Kaushal, J. Phys.38, 3897 (2005)] involving quadratic or cubic nonlinearities in addition to the convective flux term which renders the system nonconservative and the corresponding Hamiltonian non-Hermitian.

    • Elliptic flow in a hadron-string cascade model at 130 GeV energy

      P K Sahu A Ohnishi M Isse N Otuka S C Phatak

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      We present the analysis of elliptic flow at $$\sqrt s $$=130 A GeV energy in a hadron-string cascade model. We find that the final hadronic yields are qualitatively described. The elliptic flow v2 is reasonably well-described at low transverse momentum (pt<1 GeV/c) in mid-central collisions. On the other hand, this model does not explain v2 at high pt or in peripheral collisions and thus generally, it underestimates the elliptic flow at RHIC energy.

    • Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples using SSNTD’s passive method

      T A Salama U Seddik T M Dsoky A Ahmed Morsy R El-Asser

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      Thorium-to-uranium ratios have been determined in different soil samples using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). A calibration method based on determination of SSNTD registration sensitivity ratio for α-particles of thorium and uranium series has been developed. Thorium and uranium contents of the standard soil samples have been determined and compared with its known values. There is a good agreement between the results of this method and the values of standard samples. The method is simple, inexpensive, non-destructive and has a wide range of applications in environment, building materials and petroleum fields.

    • A comparative performance evaluation of micro-Raman spectrograph using holographic notch filter and dielectric filter

      R P Shukla Sanjiva Kumar A K Sinha Manika Mallick S Thakur N K Sahoo

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      An indigenously designed and developed micro-Raman spectrograph, consisting of a diode-pumped solid-state green laser for the excitation of Raman scattering, a Raman imaging microscope, CCD as a detector and a notch filter, has been extensively studied to evaluate its performance. A dielectric edge filter (having 27 alternate layers of SiO2 and TiO2) and a holographic notch filter (Oriel make) have been used to block the Rayleigh scattered light from the sample to the entrance slit of the spectrograph. Holographic notch filter is found to be able to record the Raman shifts below 700 cm−1 conveniently whereas dielectric edge filter (27 layers) has enabled the spectrograph to record the Raman spectra very efficiently after a wave-number shift of 700 cm−1. It has also been observed that the instrument using the edge filter provides a peculiar spectrum consisting of three spectral lines having Raman shifts as 569, 1328 and 1393 cm−1 in the Raman spectrum of a weakly scattering sample with large reflectivity. Similarly, a spectrum consisting of multiple lines has been observed when the instrument is being operated using a holographic notch filter. These spectral lines are not observed in the case of liquid samples such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethanol, diethyl ether etc. The origin of these peculiar spectral lines has been briefly discussed in the paper. Additionally, a major motivation for this work is to utilize the results for the selection of an appropriate filter depending on the type of the sample, i.e. weakly scattered and highly reflecting sample or highly scattered and low reflecting sample.

    • Self-assembled fluids with order-parameter-dependent mobility: The large-N limit

      N P Rapapa N B Maliehe

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      The effect of the order-parameter-dependent mobility, $$\Gamma (\overrightarrow \phi ) \propto \left( {1 - g\tfrac{{\overrightarrow \phi ^2 }}{N}} \right)^\alpha $$, on phase-ordering dynamics of self-assembled fluids is studied analytically within the large-N limit. The study is for quenching from an uncorrelated high temperature state into the Lifshitz line within the microemulsion phase. In the later stage of the ordering process, the structure factor exhibits multiscaling behavior with characteristic length scale $$(t/\ln t)^{{1 \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 {2\left( {2\alpha + 3} \right)}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {2\left( {2\alpha + 3} \right)}}} $$ The order-parameter-dependent mobility is found to slow down the rate of coarsening.

    • Chaotic-to-ordered state transition of cathode-sheath instabilities in DC glow discharge plasmas

      M D Nurujjaman A N Sekar Iyengar

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      Transition from chaotic to ordered state has been observed during the initial stage of a discharge in a cylindrical DC glow discharge plasma. Initially it shows a chaotic behavior but increasing the discharge voltage changes the characteristics of the discharge glow and shows a period subtraction of order 7 period → 5 period → 3 period → 1 period, i.e. the system goes to single mode through odd cycle subtraction. On further increasing the discharge voltage, the system goes through period doubling, like 1 period → 2 period → 4 period. On further increasing the voltage, the system goes to stable state through two period subtraction, like 4 period → 2 period → stable.

    • Phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon nanotubes

      Prapti Saxena Sankar P Sanyal

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      A detailed theoretical study of the phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon nanotubes has been carried out using force constant model considering up to third nearest-neighbor interactions. We have calculated the phonon dispersions, density of states, radial breathing modes (RBM) and the specific heats for various zigzag and armchair nanotubes, with radii ranging from 2.8 Å to 11.0 Å. A comparative study of phonon spectrum with measured Raman data reveals that the number of Raman active modes for a tube does not depend on the number of atoms present in the unit cell but on its chirality. Calculated phonon modes at the zone center more or less accurately predicted the Raman active modes. The radial breathing mode is of particular interest as for a specific radius of a nanotube it is found to be independent of its chirality. We have also calculated the variation of RBM and G-band modes for tubes of different radii. RBM shows an inverse dependence on the radius of the tube. Finally, the values of specific heat are calculated for various nanotubes at room temperature and it was found that the specific heat shows an exponential dependence on the diameter of the tube.

    • Thermodynamic and surface properties of Sb-Sn and In-Sn liquid alloys

      B C Anusionwu

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      The thermodynamic properties of Sb-Sn and In-Sn liquid alloys have been studied using the quasi-chemical model for compound forming binary alloys and that for simple regular alloys. The concentration fluctuation Scc(0) and the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter (α1) were determined for the whole concentration range at a temperature of 770 K. The surface tensions of these liquid alloys were determined for the whole concentration range by using energetics determined from thermodynamic calculations. In all calculations, In-Sn manifested properties very close to alloys of ideal mixing, while Sb-Sn showed properties that are asymmetric about equiatomic composition. Our results suggest that a weak complex of the form SbSn2 could be present in the Sb-Sn alloy at a temperature of about 770 K.

    • Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline Ag1−xCuxI system using DC polarization technique

      D Bharathi Mohan C S Sunandana

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      A study of electronic conductivity using the DC polarization technique has been carried out for AgI and Ag1−xCuxI (where x=0.05, 0.15, 0.25) solid solutions over a range of temperatures from 300 K to 473 K. A diode-like current-voltage characteristics arises from microscopic p-n junctions an enhanced electronic conductivity of the order of 10−3A is observed for undoped AgI and Cu-doped AgI. Activation energies (Ea) for electronic conductivity obtained from log σ−1 cm−1) vs. 1000/T (K−1) were 0.48, 0.6, 0.74 and 1.01 eV for AgI, Ag0.95Cu0.05I, Ag0.85Cu0.15I and Ag0.75Cu0.25I solid solutions respectively. The near-twofold increase in activation energy (1.01 eV) observed upon 25% Cu doping is due to the substantial concentration of current carriers/holes injected by Cu while replacing Ag+ in AgI.

    • Mechanical and magnetic properties of nanostructured CoNiP films

      R N Emerson C Joseph Kennady S Ganesan

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      The electroplating technique is especially interesting due to its low cost, high throughput and high quality of deposit. Magnetic thin films are extensively used in various electronic devices including high-density recording media and micro electromechanical (MEMS) devices. Due to these potential applications, deposition of magnetic film draws special attention and it needs a cost-effective process. Electro-deposition being cost-effective, in the present work cobalt-based magnetic films were deposited electrochemically and deposition characteristics were studied. Effect of concentration of organic additives such as urea and thiourea in the presence of sodium hypophosphite was studied. Surface characterisation was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Elemental compositions of the films were studied using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and showed phosphorous content was less than 1%. Samples were subjected to vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and studies showed that organic additive has altered magnetic properties of these films. The reason for change in magnetic properties and structural characteristics because of the additives were discussed. Mechanical properties such as residual stress, hardness and adhesion of the films were also examined and reported.

    • Effect of various periodic forces on duffing oscillator

      V Ravichandran V Chinnathambi S Rajasekar

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      Bifurcations and chaos in the ubiquitous Duffing oscillator equation with different external periodic forces are studied numerically. The external periodic forces considered are sine wave, square wave, rectified since wave, symmetric saw-tooth wave, asymmetric saw-tooth wave, rectangular wave with amplitude-dependent width and modulus of sine wave. Period doubling bifurcations, chaos, intermittency, periodic windows and reverse period doubling bifurcations are found to occur due to the applied forces. A comparative study of the effect of various forces is performed.

    • On the integral representations of the Jost function and Coulomb off-shell Jost solution

      U Laha

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      The integral representations of the Jost function (on- and off-shell) are rederived by the judicious use of the transposed operator relation on the particular integrals for Jost solution and using one of these particular integrals an analytical expression for the Coulomb off-shell Jost solution is presented in the maximal reduced form.

    • Beta decay rates for nuclei with 115<A<140 for r-process nucleosynthesis

      Kamales Kar Soumya Chakravarti V R Manfredi

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      For r-process nucleosynthesis the β-decay rates for a number of neutron-rich intermediate heavy nuclei are calculated. The model for the β-strength function is able to reproduce the observed half-lives quite well.

    • Proton and alpha evaporation spectra in low energy 12C and 16O induced reactions

      E T Mirgule D R Chakrabarty V M Datar Suresh Kumar A Mitra H H Oza

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      Proton and alpha particle spectra have been measured in the 12C+93Nb and 12C+58Ni reactions at E(12C)=40 and 50 MeV and in the 16O + 93Nb reaction at E(16O) =75 MeV. The spectra are compared with the statistical model calculations. The shapes of the calculated spectra are in agreement with experimental data except for the alpha spectrum in the 12C + 93Nb reaction at 40 MeV. The observed evaporation bump is at ∼2 MeV lower energy compared to the calculated one. This discrepancy could imply alpha particle emission from a deformed configuration before compound nucleus formation at this near Coulomb barrier beam energy.

    • Chain length effect on dynamical structure of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone)-polar solvent mixtures in dilute solution of dioxane studied by microwave dielectric relaxation measurement

      R J Sengwa Sonu Sankhla

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      Dielectric relaxation study of the binary mixtures of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) (Mw=24000, 40000 and 360000 g mol−1) with ethyl alcohol (EA) and poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) (Mw=200 and 400 g mol−1) in dilute solutions of dioxane were carried out at 10.1 GHz and 35°C. The relaxation time of PVP-EA mixtures was interpreted by the consideration of a wait-and-switch model in the local structure of self-associated ethyl alcohol molecules and also the PVP chain length as a geometric constraint for the reorientational motion of ethyl alcohol molecules. The formation of complexes and effect of PVP chain length on the molecular dynamics, chain flexibility and stretching of PEG molecules in PVP-PEG mixtures were explored from the comparative values of dielectric relaxation time. Further, relaxation time values in dioxane and benzene solvent confirm the viscosity independent molecular dynamics in PVP-EA mixtures but the values vary significantly with the non-polar solvent environment.

    • Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

      A Jayanth Kumar N M Gowri R Venkateswara Raju G Nirmala B S Bellubbi T Radha Krishna

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      Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls.

      In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry.

      In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

    • Isotopic effects on non-linearity, molecular radius and intermolecular free length

      Ranjan Dey Arvind K Singh N K Soni B S Bisht J D Pandey

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      Computation of non-linearity parameter (B/A), molecular radius (rm) and intermolecular free length (Lf) for H2O, C6H6, C6H12, CH3OH, C2H5OH and their deuterium-substituted compounds have been carried out at four different temperatures, viz., 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K. The aim of the investigation is an attempt to study the isotopic effects on the non-linearity parameter and the physicochemical properties of the liquids, which in turn has been used to study their effect on the intermolecular interactions produced thereof.

    • Metallic/semiconducting ratio of carbon nanotubes in a bundle prepared using CVD technique

      Khurshed Ahmad Shah S S Islam H S Mavi A K Shukla Harsh

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      We present an investigation of the nature of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a bundle by resonant Raman spectroscopy. The calculation has been done for the three peak positions in radial breathing mode (RBM) spectra obtained by using a laser excitation wavelength (γ) of 633 nm from He-Ne laser on SWNT bundle sample prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique using iron catalyst at 800°C. The detailed analysis in the present study is focused on peak positions 162 cm−1, 186 cm−1, and 216 cm−1. The firs step of the analysis is to construct a list of possible (n, m) pairs from the diameters calculated from the RBM peak positions. The parameters of SWNTs studied gives in-depth understanding of many symmetry, resonance and characteristic properties of SWNT bundles. Our results indicate that the contribution of metallic SWNTs in the bundle is small at RBM peak positions 162 cm−1, 186 cm−1 and in agreement with pervious results at peak position 216 cm−1.

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