• Volume 63, Issue 4

      October 2004,   pages  643-914

    • Preface

      B R Iyer V C Kuriakose C V Vishveshwara

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    • Physics of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

      Biplab Bhawal

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      The Caltech-MIT joint LIGO project is operating three long-baseline interferometers (one of 2 km and two of 4 km) in order to unambiguously measure the infinitesimal displacements of isolated test masses which convey the signature of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. An interferometric gravitational wave detector like LIGO is a complex, non-linear, coupled, dynamic system. This article summarizes various interesting design characteristics of these detectors and techniques that were implemented in order to reach and maintain its operating condition. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: (i) length sensing and control, (ii) alignment sensing and control and (iii) thermal lensing which changes the performance and operating point of the interferometer as the input power to LIGO is increased.

    • Gravitational wave detectors: New eyes for physics and astronomy

      Gabriela González

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      Several interferometric gravitational wave detectors around the world are now starting to achieve better sensitivity to gravitational waves than ever before. We describe the prospects these detectors offer for physics and astronomy and review the rapid progress and the present status of the detectors’ sensitivities. We also report the progress made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in analysing the data produced by the LIGO and GEO detectors during the Collaboration’s Science Runs.

    • Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

      Vassiliki Kalogera

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      We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6–7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5-250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20–1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the largescale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years.

      We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20–30% of the maximum possible values.

    • Equations of motion of compact binaries at the third post-Newtonian order

      Luc Blanchet

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      The equations of motion of two point masses in harmonic coordinates are derived through the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation. The problem of selffield regularization (necessary for removing the divergent self-field of point particles) is dealt with in two separate steps. In the first step the extended Hadamard regularization is applied, resulting in equations of motion which are complete at the 3PN order, except for the occurrence of one and only one unknown parameter. In the second step the dimensional regularization (ind dimensions) is used as a powerful argument for fixing the value of this parameter, thereby completing the 3-dimensional Hadamard-regularization result. The complete equations of motion and associated energy at the 3PN order are given in the case of circular orbits.

    • Status of numerical relativity

      Masaru Shibata

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      I describe the current status of numerical relativity from my personal point of view. Here, I focus mainly on explaining the numerical implementations necessary for simulating general relativistic phenomena such as the merger of compact binaries and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of such implementations that enable simulations for several astrophysical phenomena. Some of our latest results for simulation of binary neutron star mergers are briefly presented.

    • Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

      S V Dhurandhar

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      Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for extracting binary inspirals; Fourier transforms over Doppler shifted time intervals are computed for long duration periodic sources; optimally weighted cross-correlations for stochastic background. Some recent schemes which efficiently search for inspirals will be described. The performance of some of these techniques on real data obtained will be discussed. Finally, some results on cancellation of systematic noises in laser interferometric space antenna (LISA) will be presented and future directions indicated.

    • The confrontation between general relativity and experiment

      Clifford M Will

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      We review the experimental evidence for Einstein’s general relativity. Tests of the Einstein equivalence principle support the postulates of curved space-time and bound variations of fundamental constants in space and time, while solar system experiments strongly confirm weak-field general relativity. The binary pulsar provides tests of gravitational wave damping and of strong-field general relativity. Future experiments, such as the gravity probe B gyroscope experiment, a satellite test of the equivalence principle, and tests of gravity at short distance to look for extra spatial dimensions could further constrain alternatives to general relativity. Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatories on Earth and in space may provide new tests of scalar-tensor gravity and graviton-mass theories via the properties of gravitational waves.

    • Gravitational collapse and naked singularities

      Tomohiro Harada

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      Gravitational collapse is one of the most striking phenomena in gravitational physics. The cosmic censorship conjecture has provided strong motivation for research in this field. In the absence of a general proof for censorship, many examples have been proposed, in which naked singularity is the outcome of gravitational collapse. Recent developments have revealed that there are examples of naked singularity formation in the collapse of physically reasonable matter fields, although the stability of these examples is still uncertain. We propose the concept of ‘effective naked singularities’, which will be quite helpful because general relativity has limitation in its application at the high-energy end. The appearance of naked singularities is not detestable but can open a window for the new physics of strongly curved space-times.

    • Canonical quantum gravity and consistent discretizations

      Rodolfo Gambini Jorge Pullin

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      This paper covers some developments in canonical quantum gravity that occurred since ICGC-2000, emphasizing the recently introduced consistent discretizations of general relativity.

    • Loop quantum cosmology: Recent progress

      Martin Bojowald

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      Aspects of the full theory of loop quantum gravity can be studied in a simpler context by reducing to symmetric models like cosmological ones. This leads to several applications where loop effects play a significant role when one is sensitive to the quantum regime. As a consequence, the structure of and the approach to classical singularities are very different from general relativity. The quantum theory is free of singularities, and there are new phenomenological scenarios for the evolution of the very early universe such as inflation. We give an overview of the main effects, focussing on recent results obtained by different groups.

    • De Sitter universes and the emerging landscape in string theory

      Sandip P Trivedi

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      We discuss a recent proposal to construct de Sitter vacua in string theory. It is based on flux compactifications in string theory where all the moduli are stabilised and supersymmetry is broken with control. The resulting picture is that of a complicated landscape with many vacua of widely varying values for the cosmological constant.

    • Brane-world cosmology and inflation

      Misao Sasaki

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      There has been substantial progress in brane-world cosmology in recent years. Much attention has been particularly paid to the second Randall-Sundrum (RS2) scenario in which a single positive-tension brane is embedded in a five-dimensional space-time, called the bulk, with a negative cosmological constant. This brane-world scenario is quite attractive because of the non-trivial geometry in the bulk and because it successfully gives four-dimensional general relativity in the low energy limit. After reviewing basic features of the RS2 scenario, we consider a brane-world inflation model driven by the dynamics of a scalar field living in the five-dimensional bulk, the so-called bulk inflaton model. An intriguing feature of this model is that the projection of the bulk inflaton on the brane behaves just like an ordinary inflaton in four dimensions in the low energy regime,H2l2 « 1, whereH is the Hubble expansion rate of the brane andl is the curvature radius of the bulk. We then discuss the cosmological perturbation on superhorizon scales in this model. We find that, even under the presence of spatial inhomogeneities, the model is indistinguishable from the standard four-dimensional inflation toO(H2l2). That is, the difference may appear only atO(H14l4).

    • Black-hole thermodynamics: Entropy, information and beyond

      Saurya Das

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      We review some recent advances in black-hole thermodynamics including statistical mechanical origins of black-hole entropy and its leading order corrections from the view points of various quantum gravity theories. We then examine the problem of information loss and some possible approaches to its resolution. Finally, we study some proposed experiments which may be able to provide experimental signatures of black holes.

    • The current status of observational cosmology

      Jeremiah P Ostriker Tarun Souradeep

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      Observational cosmology has indeed made very rapid progress in recent years. The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spear-headed by measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the past decade. Observations of the large scale structure in the distribution of galaxies, high red-shift supernova, have provided the required complementary information. We review the current status of cosmological parameter estimates from joint analysis of CMB anisotropy and large scale structure (LSS) data. We also sound a note of caution on overstating the successes achieved thus far.

    • What have we learnt from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe?

      Robert G Crittenden

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      It has been a little over a year since WMAP produced its dramatic new glimpse of the cosmic microwave background. I review the results of the WMAP mission and the science that has arisen from it, focusing on the qualitatively new features of the data: the temperature-polarization correlation, correlations with large scale structure, the large-scale power deficit and its implications, and the search for non-Gaussianity.

    • Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

      Joshua Faber Philippe Grandclément Frederic Rasio

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      We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and quasi-circular orbits of equilibrium solutions. By adding a radiation reaction treatment, we compute the full evolution of a coalescing binary neutron star system. We find that the amount of mass ejected from the system, much less than a per cent, is greatly reduced by the inclusion of relativistic gravitation. The gravity wave energy spectrum shows a clear divergence away from the Newtonian point-mass form, consistent with the form derived from relativistic quasi-equilibrium fluid sequences.

    • Short duration gamma ray bursts

      Patrick Das Gupta

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      After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (T90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

    • Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

      Ashok Chatterjee Parthasarathi Majumdar

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      The thermodynamics of general relativistic systems with boundary, obeying a Hamiltonian constraint in the bulk, is determined solely by the boundary quantum dynamics, and hence by the area spectrum. Assuming, for large area of the boundary, (a) an area spectrum as determined by non-perturbative canonical quantum general relativity (NCQGR), (b) an energy spectrum that bears a power law relation to the area spectrum, (c) an area law for the leading order microcanonical entropy, leading thermal fluctuation corrections to the canonical entropy are shown to be logarithmic in area with a universal coefficient. Since the microcanonical entropy also has universal logarithmic corrections to the area law (from quantum space-time fluctuations, as found earlier) the canonical entropy then has a universal form including logarithmic corrections to the area law. This form is shown to be independent of the index appearing in assumption (b). The index, however, is crucial in ascertaining the domain of validity of our approach based on thermal equilibrium.

    • Quantifying energy condition violations in traversable wormholes

      Sayan Kar Naresh Dadhich Matt Visser

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      The ‘theoretical’ existence of traversable Lorentzian wormholes in the classical, macroscopic world is plagued by the violation of the well-known energy conditions of general relativity. In this brief article we show: (i) how the extent of violation can be quantified using certain volume integrals and (ii) whether this ‘amount of violation’ can be minimised for some specific cut-and-paste geometric constructions. Examples and possibilities are also outlined.

    • Early reionization and its cosmological implications

      Manoj Kaplinghat

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      We discuss how future CMB polarization measurements will provide detailed information about the reionization history and the implications of early reionization for cosmology.

    • Cosmology with cluster surveys

      Subhabrata Majumdar

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      Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameterw. Upcoming Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints onw, as well as onσ8 and ΩM to a few per cents.

    • Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics

      Patrick Das Gupta

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      Discussions related to gravitational wave experiments viz. LIGO and LISA as well as to observations of supermassive black holes dominated the workshop sessions on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics in the ICGC-2004. A summary of seven papers that were presented in these workshop sessions has been provided in this article.

    • Summary of quantum aspects of gravitation workshop

      Ghanashyam Date Jnanadev Maharana

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      This is a summary of the presentations at the parallel session on ‘Quantum Aspects of Gravitation’ (QAG) of the ICGC-2004.

    • Summary of classical general relativity workshop

      Naresh Dadhich Narayan Banerjee

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      This is a summary of the presentations at the parallel session in the classical general relativity workshop of the ICGC-2004.

    • Summary of cosmology workshop

      Tarun Souradeep

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      Cosmology is passing through a golden phase of rapid advance. The cosmology workshop at ICGC-2004 attracted a large number of research contributions to diverse topics of cosmology. I attempt to classify and summarize the research work and results of the oral and poster presentations made at the meeting.

    • Conference overview

      Ghanashyam Date

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      This is an expanded version of the summary talk given at the conclusion of the ICGC-2004 held at Kochi. Brief introductory remarks are included to provide a slightly wider context to the theme talks.

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