• Volume 62, Issue 2

      February 2004,   pages  147-541

    • Preface

      D P Roy Sunanda Banerjee K Sridhar

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    • Precision tests of the standard model, the Higgs, and new physics

      Guido Altarelli

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      We present a concise review of the status of the standard model and of the search for new physics.

    • Physics with large extra dimensions

      Ignattos Antoniadis

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      The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub-millimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss a minimal embedding of the standard model, gauge coupling unification and proton stability.

    • Higgs physics at LHC

      S Dasu

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      The large hadron collider (LHC) and its detectors, ATLAS and CMS, are being built to study TeV scale physics, and to fully understand the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. The Monte-Carlo simulation results for the standard model and minimal super symmetric standard model Higgs boson searches and parameter measurements are discussed. Emphasis is placed on recent investigations of Higgs produced in association with top quarks and in vector boson fusion channels. These results indicate that Higgs sector can be explored in many channels within a couple of years of LHC operation, i.e.,L = 30 fb−1. Complete coverage including measurements of Higgs parameters can be carried out with full LHC program.

    • Higgs physics at future colliders: Recent theoretical developments

      Abdelhak Djouadi

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      I review the physics of the Higgs sector in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, the MSSM. I will discuss the prospects for discovering the Higgs particles at the upgraded Tevatron, at the large hadron collider, and at a future high-energye+e linear collider with centre-of-mass energy in the 350–800 GeV range, as well as the possibilities for studying their fundamental properties. Some emphasis will be put on the theoretical developments which occurred in the last two years.

    • Particle physics explanations for ultra-high energy cosmic ray events

      Manuel Drees

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      The origin of cosmic ray events withE ≳ 1011 GeV remains mysterious. In this talk I briefly summarize several proposed particle physics explanations: a breakdown of Lorentz invariance, the ‘Z-burst’ scenario, new hadrons with masses of several GeV as primaries, and magnetic monopoles with mass below 1010 GeV as primaries. I then describe in a little more detail the idea that these events are due to the decays of very massive, long-lived exotic particles.

    • GUT precursors and fixed points in higher-dimensional theories

      Keith R Dienes Emilian Dudas Tony Gherghetta

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      Within the context of traditional logarithmic grand unification atMGUT ≈ 1016 GeV, we show that it is nevertheless possible to observe certain GUT states such asX andY gauge bosons at lower scales, perhaps even in the TeV range. We refer to such states as ‘GUT precursors’. Such states offer an interesting alternative possibility for new physics at the TeV scale, even when the scale of gauge coupling unification remains high, and suggest that it may be possible to probe GUT physics directly even within the context of high-scale gauge coupling unification. More generally, our results also suggest that it is possible to construct self-consistent ‘hybrid’ models containing widely separated energy scales, and give rise to a Kaluza-Klein realization of non-trivial fixed points in higher-dimensional gauge theories.

    • New neutrino experiments

      Maury Goodman

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      Following incredible recent progress in understanding neutrino oscillations, many new ambitious experiments are being planned to study neutrino properties. The most important may be to find a non-zero value of θ13. The most promising way to do this appears to be to measurevμve oscillations with anE/L near Δmatmo2. Future neutrino experiments are great.

    • Solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

      Srubabati Goswami

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      This article summarises the status of the solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology at the end of 2002 in the light of the SNO and KamLAND results. We first present the allowed areas obtained from global solar analysis and demonstrate the preference of the solar data towards the large-mixing-angle (LMA) MSW solution. A clear confirmation in favour of the LMA solution comes from the KamLAND reactor neutrino data. The KamLAND spectral data in conjunction with the global solar data further narrows down the allowed LMA region and splits it into two allowed zones a low Δm2 region (low-LMA) and high Δm2 region (high-LMA). We demonstrate through a projected analysis that with an exposure of 3 kton-year (kTy) KamLAND can remove this ambiguity.

    • P and CP violation inB physics

      Michael Gronau

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      While the Kobayashi-Maskawa single phase origin of CP violation passed its first crucial precision test inB → J/ψKs, the chirality of weakb-quark couplings has not yet been carefully tested. We discuss recent proposals for studying the chiral and CP-violating structures of these couplings in radiative and hadronicB decays.

    • Leptonic flavor and CP violation

      Yuval Grossman

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      Recent neutrino oscillation data teach us that the neutrinos have masses and that they mix. We discuss two ways that can be used to probe other non-standard leptonic physics. We show that non-standard neutrino interaction can be probed in neutrino oscillation experiments and discuss sneutrino-antisneutrino mixing.

    • Higgs bosons in the standard model, the MSSM and beyond

      John F Gunion

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      I summarize the basic theory and selected phenomenology for the Higgs boson(s) of the standard model, the minimal supersymmetric model and some extensions thereof, including the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model.

    • Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics

      S F King

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      We review experimental and theoretical developments in inflation and its application to structure formation, including the curvaton idea. We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which the Higgs scalar field is responsible for large scale structure, show how such a theory is completely natural in the framework extra dimensions with an intermediate string scale.

    • Understanding neutrino masses and mixings

      R N Mohapatra

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      We discuss ways to understand large neutrino mixings using new symmetries of quarks and leptons beyond the standard model for the three allowed patterns of neutrino masses: normal, inverted hierarchy and degenerate masses.

    • SUSY dark matter — a collider physicist’s perspective

      Mihoko M Nojiri

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      A short tour on the supersymmetric dark matter and its connection to the collider physics.

    • Experimental and phenomenological status of neutrino anomalies

      Sandip Pakvasa

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      The current status of neutrino anomalies is summarized; the KamLAND experiment is described and the recent results of KamLAND presented.

    • Leptogenesis

      E A Paschos

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      I present the theoretical basis for leptogenesis and its implications for the structure of the universe. It is suggested that density fluctuations grow during the transition period and remnants of this effect should be sought in the universe. The relation between theories with Majorana neutrinos and low energy phenomena, including oscillations, advanced considerably during the past two years with a consistent picture developed in several models.

    • Electroweak breaking and supersymmetry breaking

      Stefan Pokorski

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      We discuss the clash between the absence of fine tuning in the Higgs potential and a sufficient suppression of flavour changing neutral current transitions in supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. It is pointed out that horizontalU(1) symmetry combined with theD-term supersymmetry breaking provides a realistic framework for solving both problems.

    • Transplanckian collisions in TeV scale gravity

      Riccardo Rattazzi

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      Collisions at transplanckian energies offer model independent tests of TeV scale gravity. One spectacular signal is given by black-hole production, though a full calculation of the corresponding cross-section is not yet available. Another signal is given by gravitational elastic scattering, which may be less spectacular but which can be nicely computed in the forward region using the eikonal approximation. In this talk I discuss the distinctive signatures of eikonalized scattering at future accelerators.

    • Particle dark matter — A theorist’s perspective

      Leszek Roszkowski

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      Dark matter (DM) is presumably made of some new, exotic particles that appear in extensions of the standard model. After giving a brief overview of some popular candidates, I discuss in more detail the most appealing case of the supersymmetric neutralino.

    • Tachyon dynamics in string theory

      Ashoke Sen

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      We summarize the recent developments in the study of time dependent solutions describing the rolling of a tachyon on a non-BPS D-brane system.

    • Lattice matrix elements and CP violation inB andK physics: Status and outlook

      Amarjit Soni

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      Status of lattice calculations of hadron matrix elements along with CP violation inB and inK systems is reviewed. Lattice has provided useful input which, in conjunction with experimental data, leads to the conclusion that CP-odd phase in the CKM matrix plays the dominant role in the observed asymmetry inB → ψKs. It is now quite likely that any beyond the SM, CP-odd, phase will cause only small deviations in B-physics. Search for the effects of the new phase(s) will consequently require very large data samples as well as very precise theoretical predictions. Clean determination ofall the angles of the unitarity triangle therefore becomes essential. In this regardB → KD0 processes play a unique role. RegardingK-decays, remarkable progress made by theory with regard to maintenance of chiral symmetry on the lattice is briefly discussed. First application already provide quantitative information onBK and the ΔI = 1/2 rule. In the lattice calculation, the enhancement in Re A0 appears to arise solely from tree operators, esp. Q2; penguin contribution toRe A0 appears to be very small. However, improved calculations are necessary for ε’/ε as the contributions of QCD penguins and electroweak penguins largely seem to cancel. There are good reasons, though, to believe that these cancellations will not survive improvements that are now underway. Importance of determining the unitarity triangle purely fromK-decays is also emphasized.

    • Unraveling supersymmetry at future colliders

      Xerxes Tata

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      After a quick review of the current limits on sparticle masses, we outline the prospects for their discovery at future colliders. We then proceed to discuss how precision measurements of sparticle masses can provide information about how SM superpartners acquire their masses. Finally, we examine how we can proceed to establish whether or not any new physics discovered in the future is supersymmetry, and describe how we might zero in on the framework of SUSY breaking. In this connection, we review sparticle mass measurements at future colliders, and point out that some capabilities of experiments ate+e linear colliders may have been over-stated in the literature.

    • Baryogenesis and the new cosmology

      Mark Trodden

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      I begin this talk with a brief review of the status of approaches to understanding the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU). I then describe a recent model unifying three seemingly distinct problems facing particle cosmology: the origin of inflation, the generation of the BAU and the nature of dark energy.

    • High density matter at RHIC

      Thomas S Ullrich

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      QCD predicts a phase transition between hadronic matter and a quark-gluon plasma at high energy density. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new facility dedicated to the experimental study of matter under extreme conditions. Already the first round of experimental results at RHIC indicated that the conditions to create a new state of matter are indeed reached in the collisions of heavy nuclei. Studies of particle spectra and their correlations at low transverse momenta provide evidence of strong pressure gradients in the highly interacting dense medium and hint that we observe a system in thermal equilibrium. Recent runs with high statistics allow us to explore the regime of hard-scattering processes where the suppression of hadrons at large transverse momentum, and quenching of di-jets are observed thus providing further evidence for extreme high density matter created in collisions at RHIC.

    • High-energy cosmic rays: Puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino telescopes

      E Waxman

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      The existence of cosmic rays of energies exceeding 1020 eV is one of the mysteries of high-energy astrophysics. The spectrum and the high energy to which it extends rule out almost all suggested source models. The challenges posed by observations to models for the origin of high-energy cosmic rays are reviewed, and the implications of recent new experimental results are discussed. Large area high-energy cosmic ray detectors and large volume high-energy neutrino detectors currently under construction may resolve the high-energy cosmic ray puzzle, and shed light on the identity and physics of the most powerful accelerators in the Universe.

    • Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

      Fabio Zwirner

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      This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems.

    • Links between neutrino oscillations, leptogenesis, and proton decay within supersymmetric grand unification

      Jogesh C Pati

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      Evidence in favor of supersymmetric grand unification including that based on the observed family multiplet-structure, gauge coupling unification, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, and certain intriguing features of quark-lepton masses and mixings is noted. It is argued that attempts to understand (a) the tiny neutrino masses (especially Δm2(v2 – v3)), (b) the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (which seems to need leptogenesis), and (c) the observed features of fermion masses such as the ratiomb/mτ, the smallness ofVcb and the maximality of$$\Theta _{\nu _\mu \nu _\tau }^{OSC} $$ seem to select out the route to higher unification based on an effective string-unifiedG(224) =SU(2)L ×SU(2)R ×SU(2)c orSO(10)-symmetry that should be operative in 4D, as opposed to other alternatives. A predictiveSO(10)/G(224)-framework possessing supersymmetry is presented that successfully describes the masses and mixings of all fermions including neutrinos. It also accounts for the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe by utilizing the process of leptogenesis, which is natural to this framework. It is argued that a conservative upper limit on the proton lifetime within thisSO(10)/G(224)-framework, which is so far most successful, is given by$$\frac{1}{3} - 2$$ x 1034 years. This in turn strongly suggests that an improvement in the current sensitivity by a factor of five to ten (compared to SuperK) ought to reveal proton decay. Implications of this prediction for the next-generation nucleon decay and neutrino-detector are noted.

    • Phenomenology of the minimalSO(10) SUSY model

      Stuart Raby

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      In this talk I define what I call the minimalSO(10) SUSY model. I then discuss the phenomenological consequences of this theory, vis-a-vis gauge and Yukawa coupling unification, Higgs and super-particle masses, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, the decayBs → μ+ itμ and dark matter.

    • List of Participants

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