• Volume 60, Issue 5

May 2003,   pages  864a-1135

• Foreword

• Gaseous tracking at linear hadron collider: Pushing the limits

Gaseous detectors have been pushed to the limits when required to operate in the ferocious and aggressive rate environment of the new generation of HEP experiments. A great effort has resulted in the optimization and construction of large systems of gas detectors, some operational and some due for installation. In this paper some examples are presented along with the impediments that have been overcome; some open issues will be highlighted.

• Intriguing aspects in baryon production at relativistic heavy-ion collider

We review experimental results on baryon production at mid-rapidity in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC. Outstanding physics issues include the mechanism for baryon-anti-baryon production from thermally equilibrated partons, the dynamics of baryon number transport and the evolution dynamics of baryons during hadronic expansion before the final freeze-out. We highlight recent measurements on the production of protons, lambdas and their anti-particles in terms of these physics issues. We propose a physical mechanism of topological baryon formation through gluon junction hadronization and future measurements, which can test this hypothesis experimentally.

• Symmetry structure and phase transitions

We study chiral symmetry structure at finite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic field and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and their survival.

• Instability of quark matter core in a compact newborn neutron star with moderately strong magnetic field

It is explicitly shown that if phase transition occurs at the core of a newborn neutron star with moderately strong magnetic field strength, which populates only the electron’s Landau levels, then in the β -equilibrium condition, the quark core is energetically much more unstable than the neutron matter of identical physical condition.

• Quantum chromodynamics phase transition in the early Universe and quark nuggets

A first-order quark hadron phase transition in the early Universe may lead to the formation of quark nuggets. The baryon number distribution of these quark nuggets have been calculated and it has been found that there are sizeable number of quark nuggets in the stable sector. The nuggets can clump and form bigger objects in the mass range of 0.0003M⊙ to 0.12M⊙. It has been discussed that these bigger objects can be possible candidates for cold dark matter.

• A first look at Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies using the PHOBOS detector

The PHOBOS detector has been used to study Au + Au collisions at√sNN = 56,130, and 200 GeV Several global observables have been measured and the results are compared with theoretical models. These observables include the charged-particle multiplicity measured as a function of beam energy, pseudo-rapidity, and centrality of the collision. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its almost complete angular coverage such that these quantities can be studied over a pseudo-rapidity interval of |η|≤5.4. This allows for an almost complete integration of the total charged particle yield, which is found to be about Nchtot= 4200 ±470 at √sNN = 130 GeV and Nchtot = 5300 ±530 at √sNN = 200 GeV.

The ratio of anti-particles to particles emitted in the mid-rapidity region has also been measured using the PHOBOS magnetic spectrometer. Of particular interest is the ratio of anti-protons to protons in the mid-rapidity region, which was found to be (i.e.921-1) at √sNN = 130 GeV. This high value suggests that an almost baryon-free region has been produced in the collisions.

• HighpT physics at STAR

We discuss the capabilities of STAR in exploring the physics at highpT in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion colisions from RHIC at √sNN = 130 GeV Preliminary results show that the spectra of negatively charged particles get suppressed at largerpT in comparison top-p data. A strong azimuthal anisotropy observed at large transverse momentum region. A preliminary ratio -p/p has been measured by STAR-RICH detector. Some ongoing studies and future plans are discussed.

• Single inclusive spectra, Hanburg-Brown-Twiss and elliptic flow: A consistent picture at relativistic heavy-ion collider?

In these proceedings we will present the preliminary identified single inclusive particle spectra, the identified particle elliptic flow and the HBT vs. the reaction plane measured with the STAR detector at RHIC. So far none of the theoretical space-time models have been able to describe the combination of these measurements consistently. In order to see if our measurements can be understood in the context of a simple hydro-motivated blast wave model we extract the relevant parameters for this model, and show that it leads to a consistent description of these observables.

• Global variables and identified hadrons in the PHENIX experiment

PHENIX measurements related to global variables and identified hadrons are discussed. These include two-pion correlations, elliptic flow, and dN/dη. Measurements of event-by-event fluctuations in mean transverse momentum, mean transverse energy, and net charge are presented for particles within the PHENIX acceptance. The centrality dependence of these measurements is also discussed.

• ICPAQGP2001: Conference summary

I review recent progress in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, and the connection of this field to modern QCD theory of deconfinement and/or chiral symmetry restoration. The talks at this Conference have shown a convergence of data and theory as far as the CERN SPS investigations at √s = 17 GeV are concerned; the parton-hadron phase boundary seems now located atT = 170 ± 10 MeV. New data from RHIC and direct photon production results from CERN have been shown that point out the field’s future direction: analysis of partonic matter atT &gt; 200 MeV. Astrophysics analysis was shown to be linked crucially to further theoretical progress with non-perturbative QCD.

• Charged-particle multiplicity at mid-rapidity in Au-Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider

The particle density at mid-rapidity is an essential global variable for the characterization of nuclear collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. It provides information about the initial conditions and energy density reached in these collisions. The pseudorapidity densities of charged particles at mid-rapidity in AuAu collisions at √sNN = 130 and 200 GeV at RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) have been measured with the PHENIX detector. The measurements were performed using sets of wire-chambers with pad readout in the two central PHENIX tracking arms. Each arm covers one quarter of the azimuth in the pseudorapidity interval |η| &lt; 035. Data is presented and compared with results from proton-proton collisions and nucleus-nucleus collisions at lower energies. Extrapolations to LHC energies are discussed.

• Event-by-event search for charged-neutral fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A⋅GeV

Results from the analysis of data obtained from the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS have been presented. Some events have been filtered which show photon excess in limitedη–ø zones within the overlap region of the charged particle and photon multiplicity detectors.

• Event-by-event fluctuations of mean transverse momentum in AuAu collisions in STAR experiment at relativistic heavy-ion collider

We report results on event-by-event fluctuations in mean transverse momentum in AuAu collisions at$$\sqrt {^s NN} = 130$$ GeV measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The dynamical fluctuations,$$\sigma _{\langle P_t \rangle ,dynam}$$ is found to be about 1.2 ±02% of the mean transverse momentum for particles in pseudo-rapidity range of −0.5 &lt; η &lt; 0.5 and for the top 6% central collisions.

• Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark-hadron transition

Baryon inhomogeneities generated during the quark-hadron transition may alter the abundances of light elements if they persist up to the time of nucleosynthesis. These inhomogeneities survive up to the nucleosynthesis epoch if they are separated by a distance of at least a few metres. In this work we present a model where large sheets of these inhomogeneities separated by a distance of a few km are formed by cosmic string wakes during the quark-hadron transition. The effect of these sheets on nucleosynthesis will also put constraints on the various cosmic string parameters.

• Bose-Einstein condensation of anti-kaons and neutron star twins

We investigate the role of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of anti-kaons on the equation of state (EoS) and other properties of compact stars. In the framework of relativistic mean field model we determine the EoS for β-stable hyperon matter and compare it to the situation when anti-kaons condense in the system. We observe that anti-kaon condensates soften the EoS, thereby lowering the maximum mass of the stars. We also demonstrate that the presence of antikaon condensates in the high density core of compact stars may lead to a new mass sequence beyond white dwarf and neutron stars. The limiting mass of the new sequence stars is nearly equal to that of neutron star branch though they have distinctly different radii and compositions. They are called neutron star twins.

• Observing B-violation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

Under certain situations, partons formed in heavy-ion collision experiments may expand out forming a shell-like structure. The partons in the outer shell subsequently hadronize, leaving a bubble of pure deconfined vacuum for a first-order quark-hadron phase transition. The bubble collapses and may eventually decay into particles which may thermalize to temperatures exceeding the electroweak transition temperature (100 GeV) at LHC. This will lead to the possibility of unsuppressed electroweak baryon number violating processes.

• Identified hadron production in √s = 130 GeV Au-Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider

Identified π±,K±, p and -p transverse momentum spectra at mid-rapidity in √sNN = 130 GeV Au-Au collisions were measured by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC as a function of collision centrality. Average transverse momenta increase with the number of participating nucleonsNpart similarly for all particle species. The multiplicity densities scale faster thanNpart. TheK± andp±yields per participant increase faster than the π± yields. We combine the PHENIX neutral and charged pion measurement and find that in central collisions forpT &gt;-2 GeV/c,-p andp yields are comparable to or even exceed the pion yields.

• Mechanical prototype of tracking chamber in station 2 in dimuon spectrometer of ALICE

• Development of a honeycomb gas proportional counter array for photon multiplicity measurements in high multiplicity environment

A novel gas-based detector using large arrays of honeycomb cells has been developed and tested for use as a pre-shower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for STAR and ALICE experiments. The appropriate cell design was arrived at using GARFIELD simulations. Prototype chambers with cell dimensions corresponding to STAR and ALICE were fabricated and tested at CERN PS and SPS. The charged particle detection efficiency and the pre-shower characteristics have been studied using pion and electron beams.

• Chiral phase transitions in quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature: Hard-thermal-loop resummed Dyson-Schwinger equation in the real time formalism

Chiral phase transition in thermal QCD is studied by using the Dyson-Schwinger (DS) equation in the real time hard thermal loop approximation. Our results on the critical temperature and the critical coupling are significantly different from those in the preceding analyses in the ladder DS equation, showing the importance of properly taking into account the essential thermal effects, namely the Landau damping and the unstable nature of thermal quasiparticles.

• Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker-Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient is proposed. A schematic model for rapidity distributions of participant baryons is set up and solved analytically. The evolution from SIS via AGS and SPS to RHIC energies is discussed. Strong-coupling diffusion produces double-peaked spectra in central collisions at the higher SPS momentum of 158 A.GeV/c and beyond.

• Strange particle production from SIS to LHC

A review of meson emission in heavy-ion collisions at incident energies from SIS up to collider energies is presented. A statistical model assuming chemical equilibrium and local strangeness conservation (i.e. strangeness conservation per collision) explains most of the observed features, e.g. the different centrality dependences of pions and kaons. Furthermore, the independence of theK+ toK- ratio on the number of participating nucleons observed between SIS and relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) is consistent with this model.

The observed maximum in theK++ excitation function is also seen in the ratio of strange to non-strange particle production. The appearance of this maximum around 30 A.GeV is due to the energy dependence of the chemical freeze-out parametersT and μB.

• Azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching at LHC

We analyze the azimuthal anisotropy of jet spectra due to energy loss of hard partons in quark-gluon plasma, created initially in nuclear overlap zone in collisions with non-zero impact parameter. The calculations are performed for semi-central Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energy.

• The ALICE forward muon spectrometer

The physics capabilitites of the ALICE forward muon spectrometer are reviewed.

• Multi-strange-quark states at ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

We examine the possibility of producing and evidencing exotic strange matter (strangelets and metastable multi-hypernuclear objects, MEMO’s), including also pure hyperonic bound states ((ΛΛ)b, (ξΛ)b), at RHIC and LHC. Simulations are presented to estimate the sensitivity of the STAR and ALICE experiments to the detection of these objects, focusing mainly on metastable short-lived (weak decaying) strange dibaryons, with a particular emphasis on theH-dibaryon, a six quark-bag bound state (uuddss).

• Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at super proton synchrotron energies from the NA50 experiment

We present the measurements of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions dNch/dη performed by the NA50 experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Measurements were done at incident energies of 40 GeV (√s = 8.77 GeV) and 158 GeV (√s = 17.3 GeV) per nucleon over a broad impact parameter range. The multiplicity distributions are studied as a function of centrality using the number of participating nucleons(Npart), or the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll). Their values at midrapidity exhibit a linear scaling withNpart at both energies. Particle yield increases approximately by a factor of 2 betweeny √s = 8.77 GeV and √s = 17.3 GeV.

• Low-mass lepton pair production in Pb-Au collisions at 40 A.GeV

The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS has previously measurede+e- pair production in 160 A.GeV Pb-Au collisions. In the mass regionm &gt; 02 GeV/c2, an enhancement of 2.7±04(stat.)±0.5(syst.) compared to the expectation from known hadronic decay sources was observed. In the 40 A.GeV data taken in 1999, an enhancement is again found; a preliminary analysis gives an even larger value of 50 ±13(stat.). The results are compared to theoretical model calculations based on π+π- annihilation with a modified ρ-propagator; they may be related to chiral symmetry restoration.

• Low mass dileptons from Pb + Au collisions at 158 A.GeV

The medium modification of vector meson properties in hot/dense hadronic matter and its role in explaining the CERES/NA45 dilepton data at different centralities are discussed.

• Photon production from quark gluon plasma at finite baryon density

The photon yield from a baryon-rich quark gluon plasma (QGP) at SPS energy has been estimated. In the QGP phase, rate of photon production is evaluated up to two-loop level. In the hadron phase, dominant contribution from π,ρ, ω mesons has been considered. The evolution of the plasma has been studied with appropriate equation of state in both QGP and hadron phase for a baryon-rich system. At SPS energy, the total photon yield is found to increase marginally in the presence of baryon density.

• The extent of strangeness equilibration in quark gluon plasma

The evolution and production of strangeness from chemically equilibrating and transversely expanding quark gluon plasma which may be formed in the wake of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied with initial conditions obtained from the self screened parton cascade (SSPC) model. The extent of partonic equilibration increases almost linearly with the square of the initial energy density, which can then be scaled with the number of participants.

• Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

We evaluate the suppressionof J/ψ production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced T at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

• Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au+ Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed. Keywords. Relativistic heavy-ion collisions; charged hadron production; pseudorapidity distributions; centrality dependence; hard scattering processes.

• Possible evidence of disoriented chiral condensates from the anomaly in Ω. and -Ω abundances at the super proton synchrotron

No conventional picture of nucleus-nucleus collisions has yet been able to explain the abundance of Ω and -Ω. in central collisions between Pb nuclei at 158 A GeV at the CERN SPS. We argue that such a deviation from predictions of statistical thermal models and numerical simulations is the evidence that they are produced as topological defects in the form of skyrmions arising from the formation of disoriented chiral condensates. The estimated domain size falls in the right range to be consistent with the so far non-observation of disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) from the distribution of neutral pions.

• Analysis of one-and two-particle spectra at RHIC based on a hydrodynamical model

We calculate the one-particle hadronic spectra and correlation functions of pions based on a hydrodynamical model. Parameters in the model are so chosen that the one-particle spectra reproduce experimental results of √s= 130 AGeV Au + Au collisions at RHIC. Based on the numerical solution, we discuss the space-time evolution of the fluid. Two-pion correlation functions are also discussed. Our numerical solution suggests the formation of the quark-gluon plasma with large volume and low net baryon density.

• Systematics of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions

We analyze elliptic flow from SIS to RHIC energies systematically in a realistic dynamical cascade model. We compare our results with the recent data from STAR and PHOBOS collaborations on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+ Au collisions at RHIC. In the analysis of elliptic flow at RHIC energy, we find a good fitting with data at 1.5 times a scaling factor to our model, which characterizes that the model is required to have extra pressure generated from the subsequent parton scattering after the initial minijet production. In energy dependence of elliptic flow, we notice re-hardening nature at RHIC energies. Both these two observations would probably imply the possible formation of quark-gluon plasma.

• Quark condensate effects on charmonium-pion scattering

TheJ/ψπ → -DD*,-DD,-D*D* and -DD* cross-sections as a function of √s are evaluated in a QCD sum rule calculation. We study the Borel sum rule for the four point function involving pseudoscalar and vector meson currents, up to dimension four in the operator product expansion. We find that our results are close to those obtained with quark exchange models. We also find that the quark condensate gives the main nonperturbative contribution to the cross-section.

• Spinodal decomposition: An alternate mechanism of phase conversion

The scenario of homogeneous nucleation is investigated for a first-order quark-hadron phase transition in a rapidly expanding background of quark gluon plasma. It is found that significant supercooling is possible before hadronization begins. This study also suggests that spinodal decomposition competes with nucleation and may provide an alternative mechanism for phase conversion.

• Simulating ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions: Screening corrections

A year ago, we presented a new approach to treat hadronic interactions or the initial stage of nuclear collisions [1,2]. It is an effective theory based on the Gribov-Regge formalism, where the internal structure of the Pomerons at high energies is governed by perturbative parton evolution, therefore the nameparton-based Gribov-Regge theory. The main improvement compared to models used so far is the appropriate treatment of the energy sharing between the different elementary interactions in case of multiple scattering. It is clear that the above formalism is not yet complete. At high energies (RHIC, LHC), the multiple elementary interactions (Pomerons) cannot be purely parallel, they interact. So we introduce multiple Pomeron vertices into the theory.

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