• Volume 57, Issue 4

      October 2001,   pages  683-837

    • Statistical constraints on state preparation for a quantum computer

      Subhash Kak

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      Quantum computing algorithms require that the quantum register be initially present in a superposition state. To achieve this, we consider the practical problem of creating a coherent superposition state of several qubits. We show that the constraints of quantum statistics require that the entropy of the system be brought down when several independent qubits are assembled together. In particular, we have: (i) not all initial states are realizable as pure states; (ii) the temperature of the system must be reduced. These factors, in addition to decoherence and sensitivity to errors, must be considered in the implementation of quantum computers.

    • Measuring the top quark mass in the channel: A study

      Rajwant Kaur Suman B Beri JM Kohli

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      We describe a simple method to measure the top quark mass in the $$t\overline t \to WbW\overline b \to e\mu $$ channel that may be useful in Run II of DØ detector. The method is validated by applying it to the Run Ib data.

    • Investigation of halo structure of 6He by hyperspherical three-body method

      Md Abdul Khan Tapan Kumar Das

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      Hyperspherical harmonics expansion method is applied to a three-body model of two neutron halo nuclei. Convergence of the expansion has been ensured. A repulsive part is introduced in the interaction between the core and the extra-core neutron, to simulate Pauli principle. Two neutron separation energy, r.m.s. radii, correlation factor and probability density distributions have been calculated for 6He. It is found that the convergence of the two neutron separation energy is relatively slow, while other quantities reach convergence quickly.

    • A simple coordinate space approach to three-body problems — Examples: Halo nucleus and double-λ hypernucleus

      S Mahapatra J Nag D P Sural S N Mukherjee

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      We show how to treat the dynamics of an asymmetric three-body system consisting of one heavy and two identical light particles in simple coordinate space variational approach. The method is constructive and gives an efficient way of resolving a three-body system to an effective two-body system. It is illustrated by explaining the structural properties of some nuclei of current interest, namely halo nuclei and double-λ hypernuclei. The ansatz used here may be of value in a number of three particle problems of similar nature.

    • Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments and of the polarizability of the H2 molecule in the solid phase: Effect of intermolecular potential

      Adya Prasad Mishra T K Balasubramanian

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      Rovibrational matrix elements of the multiple moments Ql up to rank 10 and of the linear polarizability of the H2 molecule in the condensed phase have been computed taking into account the effect of the intermolecular potential. Comparison with gas phase matrix elements shows that the effect of solid state interactions is marginal.

    • Scattering and absorption differential cross sections for double photon Compton scattering

      B S Sandhu M B Saddi B Singh B S Ghumman

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      The scattering and absorption differential cross sections for nonlinear QED process such as double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of independent final photon energy. The incident gamma photons are of 0.662 MeV in energy as produced by an 8 Ci137Cs radioactive source and thin aluminum foils are used as scatterer. The two simultaneously emitted photons in this process are detected in coincidence using two Nal(T1) scintillation detectors and a slow-fast coincidence set-up of 30 nsec resolving time. The measured values of scattering and absorption differential cross sections agree with theory within experimental estimated error.

    • Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical fiber with fourth order dispersion

      R Ganapathy V C Kuriakose

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      We obtain conditions for the occurrence of polarization modulational instability in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation modelling fourth order dispersion effects when the linearly polarized pump is oriented at arbitrary angles with respect to the slow and fast axes of the birefringent fiber.

    • Neutrino beam plasma instability

      Vishnu M Bannur

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      We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability. It contains new, nonelectromagnetic, neutrino-plasma (or electroweak) stable and unstable modes also. The growth of the instability is weak for the highly relativistic neutrino flux, but becomes stronger for weakly relativistic neutrino flux in the case of parameters appropriate to the early universe and supernova explosions. However, this mode is dominant only for the beam velocity greater than 0.25c and in the other limit electroweak unstable mode takes over.

    • Magnetization curves for general cylindrical samples in a transverse field

      KV Bhagwat Debjani Karmakar

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      Using the recent results for the surface current density on cylindrical surfaces of arbitrary cross-section producing uniform interior magnetic field we propose a method for obtaining solutions of Bean’s critical state model for general cylindrical samples. The method uses the technique of conformal mapping to express the sample surface and the flux-fronts in terms of a set of coefficients that depend on a parameter. The flux-fronts are to be determined by solving a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the coefficients. Retaining only a certain finite number of leading coefficients we get an approximate solution. The procedure is illustrated by considering two cyclindrical samples — one with an elliptical cross-section and the other with a non-elliptical cross-section. The virgin curve and small and large magnetization hysteresis loops for the two samples are obtained.

    • Dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules under giga hertz electric field

      K Dutta SK Sit S Acharyya

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      The dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules chloral and ethyltrichloroacetate (j) in benzene, n-hexane and n-heptane (i) under 4.2, 9.8 and 24.6 GHz electric fields at 30°C are studied to show the possible existence of double relaxation times τ2 and τ1 for rotations of the whole and the flexible parts of molecules. The probability of showing double relaxation is more in aliphatic solvents indicating their nonrigidity. The symmetric and asymmetric distribution parameters γ and δ are obtained from Xij/X0ij and Xij/X0ij and wj→0 where Xij and Xij are real and imaginary parts of the complex orientational susceptibility Xi* and X0ij is the low frequency susceptibility which is real. Xij’s are involved with the measured dielectric relative permittivities εij, εin, ε0ij and ε∞ij of solutions. The theoretical weighted contributions c1 and c2 towards dielectric dispersions by Fröhlich’s method are compared with the experimental ones obtained from the graphical variation of Xij/X0ij and Xij/X0ij with weight fractions wj’s at wj → 0. The measured dipole moments μ2 and μ1 of the whole and the flexible part of a polar molecule in terms of the linear coefficients β’s of Xij’s with wj’s and the estimated τ2 and τ1 reveal their associations with aliphatic solvents. The theoretical dipole moments μtheo’s from the available bond angles and bond moments of the substituent polar groups of the molecules with the estimated μ’s suggest the mesomeric, inductive and electromeric effects in them under GHz electric field.

    • Theory of anisotropic diamagnetism, local moment magnetization and carrier spin-polarization in Pb1−xEuxTe

      R C Patnaik R K Das R L Hota G S Tripathi

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      We present theoretical analyses of anisotropic lattice diamagnetism, magnetization due to magnetic ions and carrier spin-polarization in the diluted magnetic semiconductor, Pb1-xEuxTe. The lattice diamagnetism results from orbital susceptibility due to inter band effects and spin-orbit contributions. The spin-orbit contribution is found to be dominant. However, both the contributions show pronounced anisotropy. With increase in x, the diamagnetism decreases. We consider contributions from randomly distributed isolated magnetic ions and clusters of pairs and triads for the local moment magnetization. The isolated magnetic-ion contribution is the dominant one.We calculate the magnetization for two typical magnetic ion concentrations: x=0.03 and x=0.06. Temperature dependence of the magnetization is also considered. Apart from lattice and localized magnetic ions, the carrier contribution to the spin-density is also calculated for a carrier density of p=1018 cm−3. the relative spin-density of carriers increases with increase in the magnetic field strength and magnetic ion concentration. The agreement with experiment where available is reasonably good.

    • Near surface composition of some alloys by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

      M Sreemany T B Ghosh

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      Chemical compositions of the alloys of CuNi (Cu0.10Ni0.90, Cu0.30Ni0.70, Cu0.70Ni0.30) and BiSb (Bi0.80Sb0.20, Bi0.64Sb0.34, Bi0.55Sb0.45) are determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stoichiometries are determined and are compared with the bulk compositions. Possible sources of systematic errors contributing to the results are discussed. Errors arising out of preferential etching in these alloys have been investigated. It has been inferred from such studies that the preferential etching does not enrich the surface composition with a particular component for the two systems reported here. Quantitative results of CuNi system indicate that the surface regions of the Cu0.70Ni0.30 alloy is Cu-rich, although no such evidence is observed in case of BiSb system.

    • Masses of S and P wave mesons and pseudoscalar decay constants using a confinement scheme

      JN Pandya PC Vinodkumar

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      In the framework of relativistic harmonic confinement model for quarks and antiquarks, the masses of S- and P-wave mesons and pseudoscalar decay constants from light flavour to heavy flavour sectors are computed. The residual two-body Coulomb interaction and the spin-dependent interaction of the confined one gluon exchange effects (COGEP) such as spin-spin and spin-orbit interactions are perturbatively incorporated with the confinement energy to get the respective vector-pseudoscalar meson mass differences. Here we employ the same parametrization and model parameters as used in a recent study of low-lying hadron masses and leptonic decay widths. The results are being compared with the values obtained from other theoretical models and the experimental values.

    • Lattice variation and thermal parameters of gel grown KDP crystals added with some ammonium compounds

      TH Freeda C Mahadevan

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      Pure and impurity added (with NH4Cl, NH4NO3, NH4H2PO4, and (NH4)2SO4) KDP single crystals were grown by the gel method using silica gels. X-ray diffraction data were collected for powder samples and used for the estimation of lattice variation and thermal parameters like Debye-Waller factor, mean-square amplitude of vibration, Debye temperature and Debye frequency. The thermal parameters do not vary in a particular order with respect to impurity concentration. The results obtained are reported and discussed.

    • Rejoinder

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