• Volume 57, Issue 1

      July 2001,   pages  1-232

    • Foreword

      Bikash Sinha

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    • Acknowledgement

      Jyotsnamoyee Chatterjee

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    • Acknowledgement

      Jyotsnamoyee Chatterjee

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    • Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

      P Mukherjee

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      Experimental studies of nuclear excitations have been an important subject from the earliest days when the institute was established. The construction of 4 MeV proton cyclotron was mainly aimed to achieve this goal. Early experiments in nuclear spectroscopy were done with radioactive nuclei with the help of beta and gamma ray spectrometers. Small NaI(Tl) detectors were used for gamma-gamma coincidence, angular correlation and life time measurements. The excited states nuclear magnetic moments were measured in perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation experiments. A high transmission magnetic beta ray spectrometer was used to measure internal conversion coefficients and beta-gamma coincidence studies. A large number of significant contributions were made during 1950–59 using these facilities. Proton beam in the cyclotron was made available in the late 1950’s and together with 14 MeV neutrons obtained from a C-W generator a large number of short-lived nuclei were investigated during 1960’s and 1970’s. The introduction of high resolution Ge gamma detectors and the improved electronics helped to extend the spectroscopic work which include on-line (p7p′γ) and (p7) reaction studies. Nuclear spectroscopic studies entered a new phase in the 1980’s with the availability of 40–80 MeV alpha beam from the variable energy cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. A number of experimental groups were formed in the institute to study nuclear level schemes with (α7xnγ) reactions. Initially only two unsuppressed Ge detectors were used for coincidence studies. Later in 1989 five Ge detectors with a large six segmented NaI(Tl) multiplicitysum detector system were successfully used to select various channels in (α7xnγ) reactions. From 1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pelletron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more sophisticated experiments. Front line nuclear spectroscopy works are now being done and new informations are obtained for a large number of nuclei over a wide mass range. Currently Saha Institute is building a multi-element gamma heavy ion neutron array detector (MEGHNAD), which will have six high efficiency clover Ge detector together with charged particle ball and other accessories. The system is expected to be usable in 2002 and will be used in experiments using high energy heavy ions from VECC.

    • Physics at the closed shells

      G de France

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      Radioactive beams obtained via fragmentation of the projectile on a primary target have shown to be a powerful tool to produce exotic nuclei and some typical results obtained at GANIL in this area will be shown. To go further, and in particular, to get beams of exotic nuclei, new facilities have been developed recently. The physics expected from the use of these radioactive ion beam facilities is extremely ambitious as stated in the scientific motivations justifying their construction. At GANIL the SPIRAL facility is ready and will hopefully deliver the first radioactive beams in 2001. New experimental devices have been developed to fully exploit the potentiality expected from SPIRAL. EXOGAM is a new, efficient and powerful gamma ray spectrometer currently under installation at GANIL. The design and the performances expected from this array will be discussed.

    • Nuclear structure and Indian Clover array

      H C Jain

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      A brief description of the nuclear structure studies performed with the 14-UD pelletron at TIFR has been presented. The experimental facilities developed for these studies are described. Some of the interesting results obtained for mass 70 to 80 nuclei are presented. The development of a recoil mass spectrometer and an Indian clover array for the study of high spin states in nuclei near drip lines is discussed.

    • Microscopy of femtoscale structures

      P Chowdhury

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      Advances in experimental techniques are discussed for the study of long-lived isomers using gammasphere. Spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei in the A ∼ 180 region is made possible for the first time via neutron transfer from heavy beams, and long-predicted high-K isomers are observed.

    • Nuclear structure studies at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics using gamma detector arrays

      P Banerjee

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      In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy, carried out at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in the recent past, using heavy-ion projectiles from the pelletron accelerator centres in the country and multi-detector arrays have yielded significant data on the structure of a large number of nuclei spanning different mass regions. The experiments included the study of two-fold $\gamma\gamma$-coincidence events for establishing decay schemes, directional correlation of oriented nuclei (DCO) for help in spin assignments and Doppler shift attenuation for lifetime information. The studies have led to the observation of rotational sequences of states in nuclei near closed shell in the mass $A = 110$ region, vibrational spectra in nuclei with $A\sim 60$, interplay between single-particle and collective modes of excitation in the doubly-odd bromine isotopes, decoupled bands with large quadrupole deformation in 77Br, shape transition with rotational frequency within a band in 138Pm and octupole collectivity in 153Eu. Particle-rotor-model and cranked-shell-model calculations have been carried out to provide an understanding of the underlying nuclear structure

    • Nuclear physics with simple and multi-element detectors and with stable and radioactive beams

      Neil Rowley

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      The phenomenon of fusion barrier distributions is discussed in the context of a problem already investigated in some detail with simple detection systems, but possessing avenues to studies with multi-detector arrays. The complementarity of research with simple and complex detectors, as well as with stable and radioactive beams, will be highlighted.

    • Spallation reactions studied with 4π-detector arrays

      J Galin

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      Recently here has been a renewed interest in the study of spallation reactions in basic nuclear physics as well as in potential applications. Spallation reactions induced by light projectiles (protons, antiprotons, pions, etc.) in the GeV range allow the formation of hot nuclei which do not suffer the collective excitations (compression, rotation, deformation) unavoidable when using massive projectiles. Such nuclei provide an ideal testbench for probing their decay as a function of excitation energy. In these investigations, 4π-detector arrays for charged particles and neutrons play a major role in the event-by-event sorting according to the excitation energy of the nucleus.

      Spallation reactions induced on heavy nuclei allow the conversion of the incident GeV proton into several tens of evaporated neutrons. The neutron production in thick targets has been investigated in great detail thanks to the use of high efficiency neutron detector arrays. When scattered on samples of inert or biological materials, these neutrons can be used to study details of the material structure. They could also be utilized for the transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes or for the feeding of sub-critical nuclear reactors.

      The role of different types of multi-detector arrays is highlighted in this paper. Several references are also given for different uses of high efficiency neutron detectors in other contexts.

    • Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions — What have we learnt?

      S Kailas

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      Light charged particles emitted in heavy-ion induced reactions, their spectra and angular distributions measured over a range of energies, carry the signature of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Analysis of data of light charged particles, both inclusive and exclusive measured in coincidence with gamma rays, fission products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the influence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean field and dynamics on the emission of these particles.

    • Neutron-induced reaction cross-section measurements using a small multi-detector array and description of a large array

      J-P Meulders I Slypen S Benck E Raeymackers J Cabrera Ch Dufauquez T Keutgen V Roberfroid I Tilquin Y El Masri V Corcalciuc N Nica

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      The experimental setup of Louvain-la-Neuve (UCL-Belgium) used to perform light-charged particle production experiment in fast neutron-induced reactions is presented. A short description of the neutron modular detector DEMON is also given. DEMON is a detector array for neutrons emitted in heavy ion induced reactions at low to intermediate energies.

    • The experimental study of exotic nuclear states using multi-detector arrays

      D L Watson

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      This contribution outlines the work of the CHARISSA collaboration in the investigation of exotic states in nuclei. It outlines the background to the work, the techniques involved and discusses in detail an experiment to study the cluster structure of 12Be.

    • Multifragmentation and dynamics in heavy ion collisions

      R Roy

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      A midrapidity zone formed in heavy-ion collisions has been investigated through special selections of light particles and intermediate mass fragments detected in the reaction 35Cl on 12C at 43 MeV/nucleon and the reactions 58Ni on 12C, 24Mg, and 197Au at 34.5 MeV/nucleon, and of neutron energy spectra measured in the reaction 35Cl on natTa. Properties of the observables have been examined to characterize the neck-like structure formed between the two reaction partners.

    • The leak microstructure

      M Lombardi C Baiocchi A Battistella G Balbinot H Huo-Ja Guoxiang F S Lombardi

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      The capabilities of a new microstructure, anode point based, for the detection of gas ionizing radiations are presented. For every single detected ionizing radiation it gives a pair of ‘induced’ charges (anodic and cathodic) of the same amount (pulses of the same amplitudes), of opposite sign, with the same collection time and essentially in time coincidence, that are proportional to the primary ionization collected. Each pulse of a pair gives the same energy and timing information, thus one can be used for these information and the other for the position. The complete lack of insulating materials in the active volume of this microstructure avoids problems of charging-up and makes stable and repeatable its behavior. It is possible to observe primary avalanches with a size of more than 2.5 × 107 electrons (4 pC), which give current pulses with a peak of more than 0.26 mA on 100 Ohm and about 30 ns duration, with 5.9 KeV X-rays of 55Fe working in proportional region in 760 Torr of isobutane gas. Single electrons emitted by a heated filament (Ec<1 eV) can also be detected in 760 Torr of isobutane; with an estimated gas gain of 1.2 × 106 and a counting rate up to 800 Kpulses/sec per single microstructure. Some new features and three different types of sensitive-position two-dimensional read-out detectors based on these microstructures, which are in developmental stage, are presented.

    • Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

      R K Bhowmik

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      The new generation of detector arrays require complex instrumentation and data acquisition system to ensure increased reliability of operation, high degree of integration, software control and faster data handling capability. The main features of some of the existing multi-detector arrays like MSU 4π array, Gammasphere and Eurogam are summarized. The instrumentation for the proposed INGA array in India is discussed.

    • Data acquisition for experiments with multi-detector arrays

      A Chatterjee Sushil Kamerkar A K Jethra S Padmini M P Diwakar S S Pande M D Ghodgaonkar

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      Experiments with multi-detector arrays have special requirements and place higher demands on computer data acquisition systems. In this contribution we discuss data acquisition systems with special emphasis on multi-detector arrays and in particular we describe a new data acquisition system, AMPS which we have developed recently which is in regular use in experiments at the Pelletron Laboratory, Mumbai. This includes the in-house development of a dedicated crate controller, PC interface card and software.

    • A BaF2 crystal array for high energy γ-ray measurements

      A Ray S R Banerjee P Das

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      We shall discuss about the scientific motivation and construction of a 7×7 BaF2 crystal array at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. This detector would be used to measure high energy γ-ray photons from GDR decay and proton-neutron bremsstrahlung reactions at the present 88″ cyclotron and upcoming superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. This detector can also be used to measure photons from quark-gluon plasma at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) in USA.

    • MEGHNAD — A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision studies

      Satyajit Saha

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      In the coming decade, the expanding field of experimental nuclear physics in our country is going to see a quantum leap in research and developmental activities with new accelerator facilities like the variable energy cyclotron with ECR heavy ion source, the upcoming K-500 superconducting cyclotron, both at VECC, Calcutta, and the superconducting linac boosters at both the Pelletron Accelerator Facilities at TIFR, Mumbai and NSC, New Delhi. When heavy ion beam available from such machines fall on a target and undergo collision, very rich and often pristine fields of research open up. In order to carry on such activities, we have taken up a project to build a multi element gamma, heavy ion and neutron array of detectors (MEGHNAD) to detect and study the properties of a wide variety of particles like neutrons, protons, light mass clusters, massive ejected fragments, and gamma rays with good solid angle coverage and efficiency. Design of the detector array, performance of the prototype detector and brief outline of the research programme to be undertaken with the detector array will be discussed.

    • Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

      Samit Mandal J Gerl H Geissel K Hauschild M Hellström Z Janas I Kojouharov Y Kopatch RC Lemmon P Mayet Z Podolyak PH Regan H Schaffner C Schlegel J Simpson HJ Wollersheim

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      Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

    • Level structures of 95,97Mo — A comparative study

      JM Chatterjee M Saha Sarkar S Bhattacharya P Banerjee S Sarkar RP Singh S Murulithar RK Bhowmik

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      High-spin states of 95,97Mo (Z=42, N=53,55) nuclei have been investigated through 82Se(18O, xn) reaction at Eb=60 MeV. The level scheme in 95Mo has been observed upto ≏ 10 MeV in the present experiment. The level structure shows mainly single particle character. In 97Mo, the ground state level sequence has been extended to ≏ 4.5 MeV while the previous information had been up to 2.4 MeV. A negative parity band built on 1437 keV (11/2) excited state has been extended to 5.5 MeV. The structure seems to show a coexistence of single particle and collective modes of excitation. Properties of both the nuclei have been compared with shell model calculations using OXBASH.

    • Particle-rotor-model calculations in 125I

      Hariprakash Sharma B Sethi P Banerjee Ranjana Goswami RK Bhandari Jahan Singh

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      Recent experimental data on 125I has revealed several interesting structural features. These include the observation of a three quasiparticle band, prolate and oblate deformed bands, signature inversion in the yrast positive-parity band and identification of the unfavoured πh11/2 band showing very large signature splitting. In the present work, particle-rotor-model calculations have been performed for the πh11/2 band, using an axially symmetric deformed Nilsson potential. The calculations reproduce the experimental results well and predict a moderate prolate quadrupole deformation of about 0.2 for the band.

    • High spin spectroscopy of 139Pr

      S Chanda Sarmishtha Bhattacharyya Tumpa Bhattacharjee SS Ghugre Swapan Kumar Basu S Muralithar RP Singh B Mukherjee RK Bhowmik SN Ray

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      The high spin states in N=80 139Pr have been investigated by in-beam γ-spectroscopic techniques following the reaction 130Te (14N, 5n) reaction at E=75 MeV, using a gamma detector array, consisting of seven 23% compton-suppressed high purity germanium detectors and a multiplicity ball of fourteen bismuth germanate elements. Based on γ-γ coincidence data, the level scheme of 139Pr has been considerably extended up to 7.2 MeV excitation. Tentative spin-parity assignments are done for the newly proposed levels on the basis of the DCO ratios corresponding to strong gates and the available information from the earlier light ion experiments.

    • High spin rotational bands in 65Zn

      B Mukherjee S Muralithar RP Singh R Kumar K Rani RK Bhowmik

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      The nucleus 3065Zn was studied using the 52Cr(16O, 2pn)65Zn reaction at a beam energy of 65 MeV. The level scheme is extended up to an excitation energy of 10.57 MeV for spin-parity (41/2ħ) with several newly observed transitions placed in it.

    • High-spin structure of yrast-band in 78Kr

      PK Joshi R Palit HC Jain S Nagaraj JA Sheikh

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      Lifetime of levels up to 22+, have been measured in 78Kr and an oblate shape is assigned to the ground state using the CSM and the configuration dependent shell correction calculations. Calculations further show that 78Kr is highly γ-soft nucleus. The experimental Qt values coupled with theoretical calculations indicate an oblate shape for 78Kr at low spins and triaxial shape at higher spins

    • Structure of 72,74Se at high spin

      R Palit HC Jain PK Joshi JA Sheikh

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      Lifetimes of high spin states up to {$$I^\pi $$}=22+ in the yrast positive parity bands have been measured to investigate the shape evolution with increasing spin in 72, 74Se. The Qt values derived from these measurements indicate that prolate shape stabilizes for 72Se, while a triaxial shape develops for 74Se at higher spins. Comparison of the observed trend in Qt with spin for 72, 74Se with that of the corresponding kryptones isotones emphasizes the stability provided by N=38 prolate shell gap even at high rotational frequency.

    • Fusion around the barrier for 7Li+12C

      A Mukherjee M Dasgupta DJ Hinde CR Morton AC Berriman RD Butt JO Newton H Timmers

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      Fusion cross-sections for the 7Li + 12C reaction have been measured at energies above the Coulomb barrier by the direct detection of evaporation residues. The heavy evaporation residues with energies below 3 MeV could not be separated out from the α-particles in the spectrum and hence their contribution was estimated using statistical model calculations. The present work indicates that suppression of fusion cross-sections due to the breakup of 7Li may not be significant for 7Li + 12C reaction at energies around the barrier.

    • Measurement of fission anisotropy for 16O+181Ta

      Bivash R Behera Subinit Roy P Basu M K Sharan S Jena M Satpathy M L Chatter Jee S K Datta

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      Anisotropies in fission fragment angular distributions measured for the system 16O + 181Ta over a range of bombarding energies from 83 MeV to 120 MeV have been analysed. It is shown that statistical transition state model (TSM) with pre-scission neutron correction described adequately the measured anisotropy data. Strong friction parameter is found to be necessary to estimate the pre-saddle to pre-scission neutron ratio.

    • Deformation effects in the 28Si+12C and 28Si+28Si reactions

      C Bhattacharya M Rousseau C Beck V Rauch R M Freeman R Nouicer F Haas O Dorvaux K Eddahbi P Papka O Stezowski S Szilner D Mahboub A Szanto de Toledo A Hachem E Martin S J Sanders

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      The possible occurrence of highly deformed configurations is investigated in the 40Ca and 56Ni di-nuclear systems as formed in the 28Si + 12C, 28Si reactions by using the properties of emitted light charged particles. Inclusive as well as exclusive data of the heavy fragments and their associated light charged particles have been collected by using the ICARE charged particle multidetector array. The data are analysed by Monte Carlo CASCADE statistical-model calculations using a consistent set of parameters with spin-dependent level densities. Significant deformation effects at high spin are observed as well as an unexpected large 8Be cluster emission of a binary nature.

    • Breakup of 42 MeV 7Li projectiles in the fields of 12C and 197Au nuclei

      Dhruba Gupta C Samanta R Kanungo P Basu Subinit Roy S Kailas A Chatterjee B J Roy K Mahata A Samant A Shrivastava

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      Inclusive cross sections of α particles and tritons from the breakup of 42 MeV 7Li by 12C and 197Au targets are presented and analysed in the framework of the Serber model. Spectral distortions due to the targets and relevant reaction mechanisms are discussed.

    • The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

      Rakesh Kumar A J Malyadri S Muralithar Ruby Shanti S K Saini Kusum Rani B P Ajith Kumar Rajesh Kumar R K Bhowmik

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      An indigenously developed automatic liquid nitrogen (LN2) filling system has been installed in gamma detector array (GDA) facility at Nuclear Science Centre. Electro-pneumatic valves are used for filling the liquid nitrogen into the high purity germanium detector cryostat. The temperature of the out-flowing gas/liquid from the cryostat is monitored using platinum resistor thermometer. The program allows for automatic filling at regular intervals with temperature monitoring from a remote terminal.

    • Fabrication and testing of the recoil mass spectrometer at Bombay Pelletron

      S Nagaraj H C Jain P K Joshi S D Paul R Palit H V Panchal B S Naidu A Chatterjee A Navin

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      A recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) has been designed, fabricated and installed at the 15° S beam-line of the Pelletron at TIFR. The RMS consists of a quadrupole doublet just after the target chamber followed by an ‘electrostatic deflector’, a magnetic dipole and a second electrostatic deflector. The recoils produced in the 12C + 58Ni reaction using 60 MeV 12C beam were focussed with the help of electric and magnetic fields and detected in a strip detector placed at the focal plane of the RMS. Further testing of the spectrometer to obtain mass resolution and efficiency are in progress.

    • Inclusion of temperature dependent shell corrections in Landau theory for hot rotating nuclei

      G Shanmugam P Arumugam

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      Landau theory used for studying hot rotating nuclei usually uses zero temperature Strutinsky smoothed total energy for the temperature dependent shell corrections. This is replaced in this work by the temperature dependent Strutinsky smoothed free energy. Our results show that this replacement has only marginal effect for temperatures greater than 1 MeV but plays significant role at lower temperatures.

    • List of Participants

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