Volume 56, Issue 5
May 2001, pages 591-703 and L705-L713
pp 591-596 May 2001 Research Articles
Brinkmann  has shown that conformally related distinct Ricci flat solutions are pp-waves. Brinkmann’s result has been generalized to include the conformally invariant source terms. It has been shown that  if gik and $$\overline g $$ik (=w−2gik; w: a scalar function), are distinct metrics having the same Einstein tensor, Gik=$$\overline G $$ik, then both represent (generalized) pp-waves and wi is a null covariantly constant vector of gik. Thus pp-waves are the only candidates which yield conformally related nontrivial solutions of Gik=Tik=$$\overline G $$ik, with Tik being conformally invariant source.
In this paper the functional form of the conformal factor for the conformally related pp-waves/generalized pp-waves has been obtained. It has been shown that the most general pp-wave, conformally related to ds2=−2du[dv−mdy=Hdu]+P−2[dy2+dz2], turns out to be (au+b)−2 ds2, where a,b are constants. Only in the special case when m=0, H=1, and P=P(y, z), the conformal factor is (au+b)−2 or (a(u+v)+b)−2.
pp 597-604 May 2001 Research Articles
In this paper, we have studied generalized scalar tensor theory for spherically symmetric models, both in four and higher dimensions with a bulk viscous fluid. We have considered both exponential and power law solutions with some assumptions among the physical parameters and solutions have been discussed.
pp 605-613 May 2001 Research Articles
VLF emissions such as hiss, chorus, oscillating tones, hiss-triggered chorus and whistler triggered emissions have been observed at low latitude Indian stations. In this paper we present dynamic spectra of these emissions and discuss their various observed features. It is argued that most of the emissions are generated during Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance interaction between the whistler mode wave and counter streaming energetic electrons. Resonance energy of the participating electron and interaction length are evaluated to explain the generation mechanism of some of these emissions observed at Indian stations.
pp 615-624 May 2001 Research Articles
A one-dimensional stability transport code has been developed to simulate the evolution of tokamak plasma discharges. Explicit finite-difference methods have been used to follow the temporal evolution of the electron temperature equation. The poloidal field diffusion equation has been solved at every time step. The effects of MHD instabilities have been incorporated by solving equations for MHD mixing and tearing modes as and when required. The code has been applied to follow the evolution of tokamak plasma discharges obtained in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) tokamak. From these simulations, we have been able to identify the possible models of thermal conductivity, diffusion and impurity contents in these discharges. Effects of different MHD modes have been estimated. It has been found that in low q0 discharge m=1, n=1 and m=2, n=1 modes play major role in discharge evolution. These modes are found to result in the positive jump in the loop voltage which was also observed in the experiments. Hollow current density profile jφ and negative shear in the q profile have also been found in the rising phase of a discharge.
pp 625-633 May 2001 Research Articles
An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.
pp 635-641 May 2001 Research Articles
Aluminium alloy ultra-high vaccum system provides a convenient tool to access the UHV region due to short pump down time, its reduced weight, low cost etc. For UHV systems, aluminium and its alloys are preferred materials to stainless steel.
A cylincrical discharge chamber of SS 304 with various ports on it, evacuated by turbomolecular pumping unit is used in the experimental system. A hollow cathode de glow discharge in argon for different time durations is used to treat chemically cleaned ASA 6063 aluminium alloy samples, keeping all other parameters constant.
The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to examine processed surfaces and to study topographical features. The energy dispersive microanalysis by X-rays (EDX) is used to determine the elemental composition of the samples.
The results indicate the physical sputtering taking place in Ar GDC. The etched area increases with discharge time duration. The EDX spectrum shows the inconsistency in weight percentage of various elements of Al-alloy.
pp 643-656 May 2001 Research Articles
Obliquely propagating altra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating, warm, magnetized, two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfvén mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dustmagnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field have also been considered. It has been shown that effects of self-gravitational field, dust fluid temperature, and obliqueness significantly modify the dispersion properties of these ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes. It is also found that in parallel propagating dust-Alfvén mode these effects play no role, but in obliquely propagating dust-Alfvén mode or perpendicular propagating dust-magnetosonic mode the effect of self-gravitational field plays destabilizing role whereas the effect of dust/ion fluid temperature plays stabilizing role.
pp 657-665 May 2001 Research Articles
We present a model in which metastable supercooled phase and stable equilibrium phase of vortex matter coexist in different regions of a sample. Minor hysteresis loops are calculated with the simple assumption of the two phases of vortex matter having field-independent critical current densities. We use our earlier published ideas that the free energy barrier separating the metastable and stable phases reduces as the magnetic induction moves farther from the first order phase transition line, and that metastable to stable transformations occur in local regions of the sample when the local energy dissipation exceeds a critical value. Previously reported anomalous features in minor hysteresis loops are reproduced, and calculated field profiles are presented.
pp 667-684 May 2001 Research Articles
With a view to understanding the role of photo-induced valence changes of impurities in BaTiO3 in the phenomena of photorefraction, EPR experiments were conducted under in situ He-Ne laser illumination. These experiments gave evidence for photoinduced valence change of Fe in BaTiO3 at room temperature. The EPR signal due to trivalent iron was found to reduce in intensity with laser illumination The kinetics of the valence change has been investigated. Under large fringe width condition, the time constant of the decay is identified as the dielectric relaxation time τd. The changes in line shape on laser illumination to Dysonian form, appeared most predominantly in mechanically poled crystal compared to electrically poled single domain crystals. This demonstrated the possible role of domain walls and the defects there, as source or sinks of charge carriers on photo excitation. It is observed, that there is transient growth of Fe3+, when the laser illumination was put on, before its decay. This was attributed to charge transfer between electrons in oxygen vacancies and Fe4+. This predicted the growth of a transient grating under depleted pump condition in a two beam coupling experiment. This was experimentally proved by following the diffracted signal of the reading beam under the depleted pump condition.
pp 685-689 May 2001 Brief Reports
The gauge function, expressed in terms of the sources, required for a gauge transformation between the retarded electromagnetic gauge and the three-vector version of the multipolar gauge is obtained.
pp 691-696 May 2001 Brief Reports
Molecular auxiliary functions An(p) and Bn(pt), arising in the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) approximation for molecules, Ewald’s crystal lattice theory, electromagnetic stopping theory, and other approximate methods, are evaluated and analysed in the range of 17≤n≤60 and 25≤pt≤60.
pp 697-703 May 2001 Brief Reports
The Measurement of KβK/α intensity ratios are measured in some 3d shell elements by using a 2 MeV proton beam along with a high resolution Si(Li) detector. The present Measurement of KβK/α intensity ratios are in good agreement with Scofield modified theoretical values, thus supporting the basic assumptions in that theory. From the present Measurement of KβK/α intensity ratios, it is evident that due to chemical effects, the experimental Measurement of KβK/α intensity ratios will be increased while they will be decreased due to the presence of simultaneous M-shell vacancies which are produced due to proton excitation.
pp L705-L713 May 2001 Rapid Communication
A scheme to execute an 𝑛-bit Deutsch-Jozsa (DJ) algorithm using 𝑛 qubits has been implemented for up to three cubits on an NMR quantum computer. For the one- and the two-bit Deutsch problem, the qubits do not get entangled, and the NMR implementation is achieved without using spin-spin interactions. It is for the three-bit case, that the manipulation of entangled states becomes essential. The interactions through scalar 𝐽-couplings in NMR spin systems have been exploited to implement entangling transformations required for the three bit DJ algorithm.
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