• Volume 48, Issue 1

January 1997,   pages  1-378

• Editors’ note

• Preface

• Random matrices and matrix models: The JNU lectures

A course of lectures was given at the Jawaharlal Nehru University and the Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi, during February—March 1996. The following notes were distributed to the audience before each lecture. These notes, which are sketchy and do not go in details, were meant to help students follow the standard literature on the subject. They are collected here (with the exercises!) in the hope that they might prove useful to a larger community of research workers.

• Hölder exponents of irregular signals and local fractional derivatives

It has been recognized recently that fractional calculus is useful for handling scaling structures and processes. We begin this survey by pointing out the relevance of the subject to physical situations. Then the essential definitions and formulae from fractional calculus are summarized and their immediate use in the study of scaling in physical systems is given. This is followed by a brief summary of classical results. The main theme of the review rests on the notion of local fractional derivatives. There is a direct connection between local fractional differentiability properties and the dimensions/local Hölder exponents of nowhere differentiable functions. It is argued that local fractional derivatives provide a powerful tool to analyze the pointwize behaviour of irregular signals and functions.

• Signature of chaos in power spectrum

We investigate the nature of the numerically computed power spectral densityP(f, N, τ) of a discrete (sampling time interval,τ) and finite (length,N) scalar time series extracted from a continuous time chaotic dynamical system. We highlight howP(f, N, τ) differs from the true power spectrum and from the power spectrum of a general stochastic process. Non-zeroτ leads to aliasing;P(f, N, τ) decays at high frequencies as [πτ/sinπτf]2, which is an aliased form of the 1/f2 decay. This power law tail seems to be a characteristic feature of all continuous time dynamical systems, chaotic or otherwise. Also the tail vanishes in the limit ofN → ∞, implying that the true power spectral density must be band width limited. In striking contrast the power spectrum of a stochastic process is dominated by a term independent of the length of the time series at all frequencies.

• Dynamics of simple one-dimensional maps under perturbation

It is known that the one-dimensional discrete maps having single-humped nonlinear functions with the same order of maximum belong to a single class that shows the universal behaviour of a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations from stability to chaos with the change of parameters. This paper concerns studies of the dynamics exhibited by some of these simple one-dimensional maps under constant perturbations. We show that the “universality” in their dynamics breaks down under constant perturbations with the logistic map showing different dynamics compared to the other maps. Thus these maps can be classified into two types with respect to their response to constant perturbations. Unidimensional discrete maps are interchangeably used as models for specific processes in many disciplines due to the similarity in their dynamics. These results prove that the differences in their behaviour under perturbations need to be taken into consideration before using them for modelling any real process.

• Chaos in modulated logistic systems

This paper is a review of the work done on the dynamics of modulated logistic systems. Three different problems are treated, viz, the modulated logistic map, the parametrically perturbed logistic map and the combination map obtained by combining two maps of the quadratic family. Many of the interesting features displayed by these systems are discussed.

• Effect of boundary conditions on the invariant density of noisy maps at fully-developed chaos

The invariant density of one-dimensional maps in the regime of fully-developed chaos with uncorrelated additive noise is considered. Boundary conditions are shown to play a significant role in determining the precise form of the invariant density, via the manner in which they handle the spill-over, caused by the noise, of orbits beyond the interval. The known case of periodic boundary conditions is briefly recapitulated. Analytic solutions for the invariant density that are possible under certain conditions are presented with applications to specific well-known maps. The case of ‘sticky’ boundaries is generalized to ‘re-injection at the nearest boundary’, and the exact functional equations determining the invariant density are derived. Interesting boundary layer effects are shown to occur, that lead to significant modifications of the invariant density corresponding to the unperturbed (noise-free) case, even when the latter is a constant — as illustrated by an application of the formalism to the noisy tent map. All our results are non-perturbative, and hold good for any noise amplitude in the interval.

• Symplectic integration of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

There exist several standard numerical methods for integrating ordinary differential equations. However, if one is interested in integration of Hamiltonian systems, these methods can lead to wrong results. This is due to the fact that these methods do not explicitly preserve the so-called ‘symplectic condition’ (that needs to be satisfied for Hamiltonian systems) at every integration step. In this paper, we look at various methods for integration that preserve the symplectic condition.

• Painlevé analysis and integrability aspects of some nonlinear partial differential equations

A brief review of the Painlevé singularity structure analysis of some autonomous and nonautonomous nonlinear partial differential equations is discussed. We point out how the Painlevé analysis of solutions of these equations systematically provides the integrability properties of the equation. The Lax pair, Bäcklund transformation and bilinear forms are constructed from the analysis.

• Localized coherent structures of (2+1) dimensional generalizations of soliton systems

We briefly review the recent progress in obtaining (2+1) dimensional integrable generalizations of soliton equations in (1+1) dimensions. Then, we develop an algorithmic procedure to obtain interesting classes of solutions to these systems. In particular using a Painlevé singularity structure analysis approach, we investigate their integrability properties and obtain their appropriate Hirota bilinearized forms. We identify line solitons and from which we introduce the concept of ghost solitons, which are patently boundary effects characteristic of these (2+1) dimensional integrable systems. Generalizing these solutions, we obtain exponentially localized solutions, namely the dromions which are driven by the boundaries. We also point out the interesting possibility that while the physical field itself may not be localized, either the potential or composite fields may get localized. Finally, the possibility of generating an even wider class of localized solutions is hinted by using curved solitons.

• Geometry and nonlinear evolution equations

We briefly review the nonlinear dynamics of diverse physical systems which can be described in terms of moving curves and surfaces. The interesting connections that exist between the underlying differential geometry of these systems and the corresponding nonlinear partial differential equations are highlighted by considering classic examples such as the motion of a vortex filament in a fluid and the dynamics of a spin chain. The association of the dynamics of a non-stretching curve with a hierarchy of completely integrable soliton-supporting equations is discussed. The application of the surface embeddability approach is shown to be useful in obtaining such connections as well as exact solutions of some nonlinear systems such as the Belavin-Polyakov equation and the inhomogeneous Heisenberg chain.

• Nonlinear chiral models: Soliton solutions and spatio-temporal chaos

Nonlinear effective Lagrangian models with a chiral symmetry have been used to describe strong interactions at low energy, for a long time. The Skyrme model and the chiral quark-meson model are two such models, which have soliton solutions which can be identified with the baryons. We describe the various kinds of soliton states in these nonlinear models and discuss their physical significance and uses in this review. We also study these models from the view point of classical nonlinar dynamical systems. We consider fluctuations around theB=1 soliton solutions of these models (B, being the baryon number) and solve the spherically symmetric, time-dependent systems. Numerical studies indicate that the phase space around the Skyrme soliton solution exhibits spatio-temporal chaos. It is remarkable that topological solitons signifying stability/order and spatio-temporal chaos coexist in this model. In contrast with this, the soliton of the quark-meson model is stable even for large perturbations.

• Control methods for problems of mixing and coherence in chaotic maps and flows

We review a variety of control methods which are capable of enhancing the chaoticity and mixing properties of chaotic flows and also methods which work towards promoting the coherence properties of such flows. We discuss a parameter control method which can enhance the chaoticity and the rate of mixing of dissipative as well as conservative flows and outline methods which promote global mixing by the addition of noise and by preventing island formation. As the inverse side of this problem, we summarize methods which can create coherent structures in chaotic dynamical flows. We also discuss the utility of these methods from the point of view of applications as well as for understanding phenomena which occur in natural systems.

• Characterization and control of chaotic dynamics in a nerve conduction model equation

In this paper we consider the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BVP) equation which describes propagation of nerve pulses in a neural membrane, and characterize the chaotic attractor at various bifurcations, and the probability distribution associated with weak and strong chaos. We illustrate control of chaos in the BVP equation by the Ott-Grebogi-Yorke method as well as through a periodic instantaneous burst.

• Control of chaos

We review the subject of control of chaotic systems paying special attention to exponential control. We also discuss the application of synchronization of chaotic systems to security in communications.

• Effect of noise on coupled chaotic systems

The effect of noise in inducing order on various chaotically evolving systems is reviewed, with special emphasis on systems consisting of coupled chaotic elements. In many situations it is observed that the uncoupled elements when driven by identical noise, show synchronization phenomena where chaotic trajectories exponentially converge towards a single noisy trajectory, independent of the initial conditions. In a random neural network, with infinite range coupling, chaos is suppressed due to noise and the system evolves towards a fixed point. Spatiotemporal stochastic resonance phenomenon has been observed in a square array of coupled threshold devices where a temporal characteristic of the system resonates at a given noise strength. In a chaotically evolving coupled map lattice with the logistic map as local dynamics and driven by identical noise at each site, we report that the number ofstructures (a structure is a group of neighbouring lattice sites for values of the variable follow which the certain predefined pattern) follows a power-law decay with the length of the structure. An interesting phenomenon, which we callstochastic coherence, is also reported in which the abundance and lifetimes of these structures show characteristic peaks at some intermediate noise strength.

• Lattice dynamical models of adaptive spatio-temporal phenomena

We describe the rich spectrum of spatio-temporal phenomena emerging from a class of models incorporating adaptive dynamics on a lattice of nonlinear (typically chaotic) elements. The investigation is based on extensive numerical simulations which reveal many novel dynamical phases, ranging from spatio-temporal fixed points and cycles of all orders, to parameter regimes displaying marked scaling properties (as manifest in distinct 1/f spectral characteristics and power law distributions of spatial quantities).

• Control of spatiotemporal chaos: A study with an autocatalytic reaction-diffusion system

The characterization of chaotic spatiotemporal dynamics has been studied for a representative nonlinear autocatalytic reaction mechanism coupled with diffusion. This has been carried out by an analysis of the Lyapunov spectrum in spatiallylocalised regions. The linear scaling relationships observed in the invariant measures as a function of thesub-system size have been utilized to assess the controllability, stability and synchronization properties of the chaotic dynamics. The dynamical synchronization properties of this high-dimensional system has been analyzed using suitable Lyapunov functionals. The possibility of controlling spatiotemporal chaos for relevant objectives using available noisy scalar time-series data with simultaneous self-adaptation of the control parameter(s) has also been discussed.

• Some recent advances in the theory of homogeneous isotropic turbulence

We review some advances in the theory of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. Our emphasis is on the new insights that have been gained from recent numerical studies of the three-dimensional Navier Stokes equation and simpler shell models for turbulence. In particular, we examine the status of multiscaling corrections to Kolmogorov scaling, extended self similarity, generalized extended self similarity, and non-Gaussian probability distributions for velocity differences and related quantities. We recount our recent proposal of a wave-vector-space version of generalized extended self similarity and show how it allows us to explore an intriguing and apparently universal crossover from inertial- to dissipation-range asymptotics.

• The randomly stirred fluid — Turbulence as a problem in statistical mechanics

Properties of the randomly stirred fluid and the relevance to the problem of homogeneous isotropic turbulence are discussed.

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