• Volume 46, Issue 2

      February 1996,   pages  75-159

    • Perturbation theory of polar hard Gaussian overlap fluid mixtures

      Sudhir K Gokhul Suresh K Sinha

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      A perturbation theory of polar hard Gaussian overlap fluid mixture is discussed. Explicit analytic expressions for the second and third varial coefficients are given. Numerical results are estimated for the thermodynamic properties of quadrupolar hard Gaussian overlap fluid and fluid mixture. It is found that the excess free energy and internal energy depend on concentrationsc1,c2, molecular diameter ratioR, shape parameterK and the quadrupole momentsQ*1,Q*2.

    • Structural study of aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran and acetone mixtures using dielectric relaxation technique

      A C Kumbharkhane S N Helambe M P Lokhande S Doraiswamy S C Mehrotra

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      The complex permittivity, static dielectric constant and relaxation time for tetrahydrofuran-water and acetone-water mixtures have been determined at 0°, 10°, 25° and 35°C using time domain reflectometry technique (TDR). The behaviour of relaxation time of the mixture shows a maxima for the mixture with 30% of water by volume. This suggests that the tendency to form cluster between water and solute molecule is maximum for this mixture. The excess permittivity for both tetrahydrofuran-water mixture and acetone-water mixtures, are found to be negative. The Kirkwood correlation factor has been determined at various concentrations of water. Static dielectric constant for the mixtures have been fitted well with the modified Bruggeman model. The values of the Bruggeman parametera for tetrahydrofuran is found to be more than the corresponding value for acetone.

    • Composite Anderson-Newns model and density of states due to chemisorption: Quasi-chemical approximation

      R Guleria P K Ahluwalia K C Sharma

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      In this paper a variation in density of states (DOS) of the substrate due to chemisorption of hydrogen on transition metals using composite Anderson-Newns model has been investigated for different coverages in quasi-chemical approximation of Fowler and Guggenhiem, which in the limitz→∞ gives the Bragg-Williams approximation as a special case. Variation in density of states has been studied for one-dimensional periodic substrate with change in adatom interaction energy and coverage. With increase in coverage, the bonding and antibonding (B-AB) peaks are found to shift towards higher energies and at the same time relative height of the peaks also increases. The interesting feature to observe is that both approximations for a particular coverage, give split-off states with different height for both (B-AB) peaks. It particularly indicates change in B-AB states, representing amount of chemisorption, with the change in interaction energy between adatoms. At the same time bond strength is also found to decrease with interaction between adatoms.

    • Transient and thermally stimulated depolarization currents in pure and iodine doped polyvinyl formal (PVF) films

      P K Khare

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      Transient currents, measured with pure and iodine doped polyvinyl formal (PVF) films as a function of poling field (15–100 kV/cm) and temperature (30–95°C), have been found to follow Curie-von Schweidler law characterized with two slopes in short and long time regions. The isochronals (i.e. current/temperature plots at constant times) have been found to give rise to a peak located at 75°C. The order of current has been found to increase with increase in poling field, temperature and iodine mixing. The comparative studies of the isochronals with the thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) indicated the strong resemblance between the two studies. It is suggested that both the dipolar orientation due to molecular mechanism of motions with the side chains and space charge due to trapping of injected charge carriers in energetically distributed traps may be responsible for the observed currents. The dependence of current and activation energy on iodine mixing is explained on the basis of a charge transfer type of interaction.

    • Mobile interstitial model and mobile electron model of mechano-induced luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals

      B P Chandra Seema Singh Bharti Ojha R G Shrivastava

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      A theoretical study is made on the mobile interstitial and mobile electron models of mechano-induced luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals. Equations derived indicate that the mechanoluminescence intensity should depend on several factors like strain rate, applied stress, temperature, density of F-centres and volume of crystal. The equations also involve the efficiency and decay time of mechanoluminescence. Results of mobile interstitial and mobile electron models are compared with the experimental observations, which indicated that the latter is more suitable as compared to the former. From the temperature dependence of ML, the energy gaps between the dislocation band and ground state of F-centre is calculated which are 0.08, 0.072 and 0.09 eV for KCl, KBr and NaCl crystals, respectively. The theory predicts that the decay of ML intensity is related to the process of stress relaxation in crystals.

    • Spatial and time resolved analysis of CN bands in the laser induced plasma from graphite

      S S Harilal Riju C Issac C V Bindhu Geetha K Varier V P N Nampoori C P G Vallabhan

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      Analysis of the emission bands of the CN molecules in the plasma generated from a graphite target irradiated with 1.06 µm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been done. Depending on the position of the sampled volume of the plasma plume, the intensity distribution in the emission spectra is found to change drastically. The vibrational temperature and population distribution in the different vibrational levels have been studied as function of distance from the target for different time delays with respect to the incidence of the laser pulse. The translational temperature calculated from time of flight is found to be higher than the observed vibrational temperature for CN molecules and the reason for this is explained.

    • Self-similar solutions of laser produced blast waves

      K P J Reddy

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      The aerodynamics of the blast wave produced by laser ablation is studied using the piston analogy. The unsteady one-dimensional gasdynamic equations governing the flow are solved under assumption of self-similarity. The solutions are utilized to obtain analytical expressions for the velocity, density, pressure and temperature distributions. The results predict all the experimentally observed features of the laser produced blast waves.

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