• Volume 38, Issue 6

      June 1992,   pages  543-702

    • Change of guard

      R Rajaraman

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    • Electronic structure of epitaxial interfaces

      G P Das

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      Metal-semiconductor (Schottky barrier) and semiconductor-semiconductor (heterojunction) interfaces show rectifying barrier heights and band offsets, which are two key quantities required to optimize the performance of a device. A large number of models and empirical theories have been put forward by various workers in the field during the last 50 years. But a proper understanding of the microscopic origin of these quantities is still missing. In this article, our focus is mainly to present a unified framework for first principles investigation of the electronic structure of epitaxial interfaces, in which one of the constituents is a semiconductor. LMTO method is now a well established tool for self-consistent electronic structure calculations of solids within LDA. Such calculations, when performed on supercell geometries, are quite successful in predicting a wide range of interface specific electronic properties accurately and efficiently. We describe here the basic formalism of this LMTO-supercell approach in its various levels of sophistication and apply it to investigate the electronic structure of A- and B-type NiSi2/Si(111) interface as a prototype metal-semiconductor system, and CaF2/Si(111) interface as a prototype insulator-semiconductor system. These are a few of the most ideal lattice matched epitaxial interfaces whose atomic and electronic structures have been extensively studied using a wide range of experimental probes. We give here a glimpse of these experimental results and discuss the success as well as limitations of LDA calculations to achieve accuracies useful for the device physicists.

    • Magnetization studies in niobium and YBa2Cu3O7 samples

      B V B Sarkissian A K Grover G Balakrishnan Ravi Kumar P L Paulose R Vijayaraghavan V Sankaranarayanan C K Subramanian

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      The results of experimental studies on hysteresis in magnetization, thermomagnetic history effects, anomalous variations in magnetic hysteresis curves and the decay rates of magnetization obtained under different thermomagnetic histories in specimens of conventional and high temperature superconductors are presented. The Bean’s critical state model is considered adequate to explain magnetic behaviour in conventional hard superconductors. The similarity in the general features of the results of different experiments on specimens of the two families of superconductors underscores the efficacy of the said model to understand some aspects of the macroscopic magnetic response of high temperature superconductors as well. For instance, the isothermal magnetization hysteresis loop which comprises of magnetization curves along forward (−Hmax to +Hmax) and reverse (+Hmax to −Hmax) paths define an envelop within which all isothermal magnetization data along different thermomagnetic histories lie. There exist inequality relationship between various field values identified asHpeak,HI,HII etc. in isothermal magnetization hysteresis as well as magnetic relaxation data. The entire field span of an isothermal magnetization hysteresis data set can be considered to comprise of three parts corresponding to (Mrem(H)−MFC(H)+MZFC(H)) being equal to, less than or greater than zero, whereMrem(H) are the remanent magnetization values obtained on reducing field to zero after having the specimen in different applied field (H) values. There are, however some situations amongst thermomagnetic history effects in specimens which show incomplete flux trapping on field cooling, where the critical state model has been found inadequate.

    • A neutron polarization analysis study of Ce2Fe17 in its paramagnetic phase

      Sk Mohammad Yusuf L Madhav Rao K B Bhat

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      Spin-flip (paramagnetic) scattering and neutron depolarization studies were performed on Ce2Fe17 in its paramagnetic phase on the Dhruva neutron polarization analysis spectrometer. The absence of normalQ dependence of the scattered spin flip intensity shows that Ce2Fe17 is not a normal paramagnetic and there exist superparamagnetic clusters of sufficiently large dimensions (∼100Å). The observed neutron depolarization gives an indication of the dynamics of these Ce2Fe17 superparamagnetic clusters.

    • Effect of a fluorescing impurity on the characteristics of stimulated Raman scattering from acetone

      P Sathy Reji Philip V P N Nampoori C P G Vallabhan

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      Asymmetry in the intensities between backward and forward stimulated Raman scattered radiations (BSRS and FSRS respectively) in acetone is investigated in the presence of a fluorescing impurity (rhodamine 6G). In the case of pure acetone above a threshold pump power, BSRS becomes more intense than FSRS. On the other hand intensity of BSRS decreases with concentration of the fluorophore in solution, while that of FSRS is found to increase. It is observed that absorption saturation also affects the asymmetry between FSRS and BSRS.

    • X-ray determination of the Debye-Waller factors and Debye temperatures of europium monochalcogenides

      K G Subhadra B Raghavendra Rao D B Sirdeshmukh

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      X-ray powder diffractograms of EuS and EuTe have been recorded. The integrated intensites have been measured and corrected for TDS. From an analysis of the intensity data, Debye-Waller factors and Debye temperatures have been evaluated.

    • Ordering of gas bubbles during light ion gas implantation

      H K Sahu Kanwar Krishan

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      There have been interesting observations about ordering of microstructures during irradiation. The formation of void lattices is amongst the better known examples. Ordering has also been observed in small gas filled bubbles formed during low energy light ion implantation in the energy range 30–100 keV.

      The basic underlying mechanism for ordering of gas bubbles has not been clearly understood so far. We identify in this paper a basic instability in the growth kinetics of such bubbles which can develop during irradiation. This instability is shown to be associated with the interstitial production due to the high pressure inside these bubbles and their differential bias due to the strain field interactions with vacancies and interstitials. It is shown that such an instability leads to a selection of a wavelength scale which agrees with the observed lattice parameter.

    • An automated thermoelectric power apparatus using electro-optic relays

      A Chakravarti R Ranganathan

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      We report the design and construction of a thermoelectric power apparatus using home-made electro-optic relays with Z-80A microprocessor for automatic data acquisition and control. The advantages of such relays made out of LED-LDR combinations for the measurement of ΔE and ΔT are discussed in detail.

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