Volume 36, Issue 4
April 1991, pages 1-439
pp 1- April 1991 Comments
pp 353-392 April 1991 Review
Magnetic measurements in the superconducting state of the high temperature superconductors have been characterized by the feature of irreversibility. Similar effects have been known in the conventional type II superconductors for about three decades now, and have been studied in great detail during the last few years. Recent studies of magnetic irreversibilities, in both conventional and high temperature superconductors, will be reviewed here. Thermally-activated relaxation accompanies such irreversibilities, and studies on flux-creep will also be reviewed.
This review shall cover the measurement of isothermal magnetization curves, of ac susceptibility, of thermo-magnetic history effects in the magnetization at a particular field and temperature, and of flux creep. An understanding of these in terms of Bean’s celebrated macroscopic model shall be discussed. We shall also cover measurements that confirm the existence of weak links in ceramic high-temperature, as well as in conventional multifilamentary, superconductors.
pp 393-398 April 1991 Research Articles
Recent experimental studies show that the dielectric constant of lead fluoride increases rapidly as the superionic transition temperatureTc is approached. In this work the static dielectric constant (ε) is calculated theoretically for low and high temperature limits. Assuming conduction to take place through a percolation mechanism,ε is found to diverge at the threshold temperatureTth where ionic conduction starts.
pp 399-406 April 1991 Research Articles
Phase-alternated compositeπ/2 pulses have been constructed for spinI=1 to overcome quadrupole interaction effects in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Magnus expansion approach is used to design these sequences in a manner similar to the NMR coherent averaging theory. It is inferred that the symmetric phase-alternated compositeπ/2 pulses reported here are quite successful in producing quadrupole echo free from phase distortions. This effectiveness of the present composite pulses is due to the fact that most of them are of shorter durations as compared to the ones reported in literature. In this theoretical procedure, irreducible spherical tensor operator formalism is employed to simplify the complexity involved in the evaluation of Magnus expansion terms. It has been argued in this paper that compositeπ/2 pulse sequences for this purpose can also be derived from the broadband inversionπ pulses which are designed to compensate electric field gradient (efg) inhomogeneity in spinI=1 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy.
pp 407-421 April 1991 Research Articles
During the process of deforming a crystal, a high pressure is developed near the tip of mobile cracks, which may in turn produce a new ground state by thermal electron transfer. Upon sudden release of pressure, the electron can either relax to one atmosphere ground state or remain in the excited state potential well long enough to relax to one atmosphere and radiatively transfer back to the ground state. For analysing the pressure induced thermal population of the excited state, the mechanoluminescence(ML) and high pressure photoluminescence(PL) of several organic and inorganic crystals were measured. The study indicated that usual pressure coefficient of energy shift of the order of 50–100 cm−1/kbar and the stress at the crack-tip of the order of 5–10 kbar, are not sufficient to cause the thermal population of the excited state. If by any means the product of pressure coefficient and stress at the mobile crack-tip can be increased by 50 to 100 times, then the thermal population of the excited states may take place. Using the pressure coefficient of energy shift and the difference in ML and PL spectra, and using independently the change in relative intensities of the vibronic peaks, the pressure at the emitting mechanoluminescent crystal sites is evaluated and it is found to be of the order of several kbar which varies from crystal to crystal.
pp 423-427 April 1991 Research Articles
Observation of laser induced two-photon photoemission optogalvanic (TPPOG) effect from tungsten electrode in a discharge cell using 564 nm radiation obtained from a pulsed dye laser is described. The magnitude of the POG signal is studied as a function of laser energy under various discharge parameters. Competition between one-photon and two-photon processes has been observed when nitrogen gas is used in the discharge cell.
pp 429-434 April 1991 Research Articles
Phosphorescence decay of 3-(2′-N-methylbenzimidazolyl)-7-N, N-diethylaminocoumarin; 2,3,5,6-1H, 4H-tetrahydro-8-methylquinolizino-〈9, 9a, 1-gh〉 coumarin; 2,3,5,6-1H, 4H-tetrahydro-8-trifluormethylquinolizino-〈9,9a,1-gh〉 coumarin; 9(10H)-acridone; 9-aminocridine hydrochloride, 1-hydrate and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-t-butylphenyl)-1,3, 4-oxadiazole dyes in EPA glass at 77 K have been recorded using N2 laser. The results were used to determine lifetimes. Emission intensities from the first two dyes have been examined in relation to dye concentration and excitation intensity. The results are discussed.
pp 435-439 April 1991 Research Articles
The photoconductivity and electron mobility of CdI2 and ZnS crystals have been studied using N2-laser, fundamental and frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. Low values of the electron mobilities obtained in the present case have been attributed to laser-induced-absorption. It is low in one photon excitation and increases with the order of absorption.
Volume 93 | Issue 6
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