Volume 12, Issue 4
April 1979, pages 301-425
pp 301-315 April 1979 Statistical Physics
Fluctuation-dissipation theorems from the generalised Langevin equation
The generalised Langevin equation (GLE), originally developed in the context of Brownian motion, yields a convenient representation for the mobility (generalised susceptibility) in terms of a frequency-dependent friction (memory function). Kubo has shown how two deep consistency conditions, or fluctuation-dissipation theorems, follow from the GLE. The first relates the mobility to the velocity auto-correlation in equilibrium, as is also derivable from linear response theory. The second is a generalised Nyquist theorem, relating the memory function to the auto-correlation of the random force driving the velocity fluctuations. Certain subtle points in the proofs of these theorems have not been dealt with sufficiently carefully hitherto. We discuss the input information required to make the GLE description a complete one, and present concise, systematic proofs starting from the GLE. Care is taken to settle the points of ambiguity in the original version of these proofs. The causality condition imposed is clarified, and Felderhof’s recent criticism of Kubo’s derivation is commented upon. Finally, we demonstrate how the ‘persistence’ of equilibrium can be used to evaluate easily the equilibrium auto-correlation of the ‘driven’ variable (e.g., the velocity) from the transient solution of the corresponding stochastic equation.
pp 317-329 April 1979 Solids
Transition metal oxide perovskites by photoelectron and x-ray absorption spectroscopy
W H Madhusudan Sheelavathi Kollali P R Sarode M S Hegde P Ganguly C N R Rao
X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy as well as x-ray absorption spectroscopy have been employed to investigate transition metal oxide perovskites of the general formula ABO_{3} (A = La or rare-earth ion, B=trivalent transition metal ion). Systematics in the core levels and in the valence bands in the series of LaBO_{3} compounds have been discussed. Lanthanum chemical shifts in the x-ray absorption spectra in this series show interesting trends. Photoelectron spectra of the solid solutions, LaNi_{1−x}Co_{x}O_{3}, LaNi_{1−x}Fe_{x}O_{3} and LaFe_{1−x}Co_{x}O_{3} show that the rigid band model is applicable to these systems. It is shown that x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be employed to identify multiple oxidation states of transition metal ions in oxide perovskites.
pp 331-339 April 1979 Atomic Physics
Positron-hydrogen charge-exchange scattering
The positron hydrogen charge-exchange problem has been investigated using the three-particle scattering formulation. 1s and 2s intermediate states of hydrogen atom have been taken into account for calculation of second order matrix elements. The effect of 2s term is to decrease total cross-section as compared to the results involving 1s state only. The total cross-sections results are compared with results of other calculations in the energy region 1.5 to 10 Ry.
pp 341-346 April 1979 Optics
Application of fringe shifting technique in speckle photography
It is shown that the fringe shifting technique can increase the sensitivity of speckle photography for sub-speckle size changes. The technique gives time-ordered pattern that can be used for the sign detection of the motion as well.
pp 347-353 April 1979 Optics
Optical constants of single crystal GaAs
The optical constants of single crystal GaAs were determined in the range 0.6 to 4.2 eV, using Tomlin’s method and are compared in the light of the earlier results obtained using the Kramers-Krönig analysis method.
pp 355-366 April 1979 Optics
On the holographic simulation of non-circular zone plates
New methods involving the manipulation of fundamental wavefronts (e.g., plane and spherical) with simple optical components such as pinholes and spherical lenses have been developed for the fabrication of elliptic, hyperbolic and conical holographic zone plates. Also parabolic zone plates by holographic techniques have been obtained for the first time. The performance behaviour of these zone plates has been studied. Further a phenomenological explanation is offered for the observed improved fringe contrast obtained with a spherical reference wave.
pp 367-375 April 1979 Plasma Physics
Relaxation times for establishing steady state populations in optically thin helium plasmas
Population densities of HeI and HeII excited states are calculated from a collisional radiative model for non-LTE optically thin helium plasmas. Effect of direct ionisation-excitation of HeI to HeII states on the population density of HeII states is shown. Relaxation times for HeI states calculated from the CR model is reported forT_{e} from 3 to 18 eV andn_{e} from 10^{9} to 10^{16} cm^{−3}.
pp 377-390 April 1979 Plasma Physics
Experimental study of the variation of the plasma temperature with the laser flux
Experiments performed with a 50 MW — 60 nsec ruby laser to estimate the temperature of the plasma produced on the planar targets of carbon as well as polyethylene are reported. Temperatures were estimated by two foil ratio technique. The temperatures of carbon and polyethylene plasma show aφ^{2/9} dependance on flux in the flux regime of 10^{10} W/cm^{2} to 5 × 10^{11} W/cm^{2}. The comparatively slower dependance is explained on the basis of purely collisional absorption, the effect being enhanced due to relatively long duration of the laser pulses. Scaling laws of plasma temperature against laser flux obtained by different workers in different flux regimes have been analysed on the basis of collisional and non-collisional absorption.
pp 391-395 April 1979 Particle Physics
An explanation of the beam dump experiment
The production of prompt neutrinos in the beam dump experiment is explained in a cluster model, by postulating the emission of strange clusters in hadron collisions, besides the usual non-strange clusters. The low mass strange clusters can decay only by the weak interaction. The leptonic and semi-leptonic decay modes of these clusters give rise to prompt neutrinos. A prediction of the model is that the ratios <v_{e}>/π^{+} at PS energies would be the same as SPS energies.
pp 397-417 April 1979 Particle Physics
Neutral currents in left-right symmetric gauge models
Jatinder K Bajaj G Rajasekaran
We analyse all the neutral-current phenomena following from the general class of gauge models based on the group SU(2)_{L} ⊗ SU(2)_{R} ⊗ U(1). It is found that the neutral-current couplings in these models bear a remarkable similarity to those in the standard Weinberg-Salam gauge model. The parameter which plays the role of sin^{2}ϑ_{w} is found to lie between 0 and 1/2. Comparison with experimental data shows that even a model with the ratio of the masses of the twoZ bosons as small as 1.9 is not ruled out.
pp 419-425 April 1979 Particle Physics
Neutral currents in alternative U_{3} (W)-gauge models of weak and electromagnetic interactions
Two alternative U_{3}(W)-gauge models are presented. Both agree with the recent Abbott-Barnett fits to the neutrino-nucleon neutral-current data, and with the SLAC measurement of the asymmetry parameter for longitudinally polarised electrondeuteron inelastic scattering. Results for$$\sigma \left( {\nu _\mu e} \right),\sigma \left( {\bar \nu _\mu e} \right)$$ are also found in agreement with the latest measurements. The models differ in the parameterQ_{W}(Z, N) characterising parity-violation in heavy atoms for which, however, the experimental situation is still unclear.
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