• Volume 3, Issue 4

      October 1974,   pages  209-276

    • Anharmonic relaxation of phonons

      G P Srivastava

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      Using the Ziman scheme of considering a drifting Planck’s distribution, as the eigenvector of the linearized phonon collision operator, the anharmonic relaxation of phonons is discussed. The earlier arbitrariness in the phonon-phonon coupling parameters is removed by formulating explicit expressions for different allowed processes in terms of measurable quantities. Low and high temperature approximations of relaxation rates are also discussed: the results differ from earlier calculations. At low temperatures superthermal or high frequency phonons, which have temperature-independent and equal N- and U-relaxation rates, play important roles in thermal conduction in pure insulators.

    • Nucleic acid conformation: Crystal and molecular structure of deoxyguanosine (5′) phosphate (disodium salt)—Agauche-trans (gt) conformation about the C(4′)-C(5′) bond and O(1′) puckering of the furanose ring

      T P Seshadri M A Viswamitra

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      The crystal structure of deoxyguanosine (5′) phosphate, disodium salt, (5′-dGMP Na2 4H2O) has been determined from three dimensional single crystal x-ray data collected by multiple film, equi-inclination, Weissenberg method using CuKa radiation. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space groupP21 witha=16.002±0.003 Å,b=10.730±0.003 Å,c=5.575±0.005 Å andβ=101.9°. The structure was solved by symbolic addition method using the program Multan, the reliability index being 0.090. The guanine base is in the usualanti conformation about the C (1′)-N (9) bond withxCN=52.3°. The structure shows two unique conformational features not observed in any nucleotide structure reported so far. The deoxyribose moiety shows O (1′)endo puckering with respect to the best four atom plane defined by C(1′)-C(2′)-C(3′)-C(4′). The conformation about the C(4′)-C(5′) bond isgauche-trans with ø00=62.5° and øoc=174.8°. This is the first nucleotide structure where agt conformer similar to that found in the Watson-Crick double helical DNA model has been experimentally observed. These two conformational features have also direct relevance to the concept of ‘a conformationally rigid nucleotide unit’ developed by Sundaralingam. The nine membered guanine ring is essentially planar. Bases of molecules related by a ‘c’ cell translation tend to overlap, the shortest distance being 3.51 Å between the atoms N (3) and C(8). One of the sodium atoms Na(1) has an octahedral coordination with four water oxygens and O(6) and O(3′) atoms occupying the corners at distances ranging from 2.35 Å to 2.55 Å.

    • EquatorialE region electric fields — longitudinal differences in diurnal reversal times

      R G Rastogi H Chandra

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      The times of reversal of east-west electrostatic field in the ionosphere near the equator in the Indian zone have been estimated from the measurements of ionospheric drift at Thumba. The reversal of electric field in the morning from westward to eastward is delayed with respect to the sunrise at 100 km by 1.5 hr during winter and by about 3 hr during summer months. The reversal in the evening from eastward to westward occurs around 2100 hrs,i.e., well after sunset during winter months and around 16–17 hrs,i.e., well before sunset during summer months. The electric field in the American zone is known to reverse 1–2 hr after the sunrise and sunset at 100 km; the duration of daytime eastward electric field varies with season between 12 and 16 hr. In the Indian zone, duration of the eastward field during the J months is only 8 hr. These longitudinal differences in the reversal times of electrostatic field are suggested to be the cause of longitudinal differences in the equatorial ionosphere,viz., high incidence of blanketing sporadicE layer in the Indian zone and the longitudinal differences in the occurrence of spreadF.

    • In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy following the75As(p, n)75Se reaction

      Y K Agarwal C V Baba S M Bharathi S K Bhattacherjee B Lal Baldev Sahai

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      The level scheme of75Se has been studied through the75As (p, n) reaction at proton energies from 1.5 to 5.0 MeV.γ-ray and internal conversion electron measurements were made using NaI (T1) and Ge(Li) detectors and a six-gap electron spectrometer. A proportional counter and a thin window NaI(T1) detector were used to detectγ-rays with energies less than 30 keV. The level scheme has been established by observing the thresholds of variousγ-rays and byγ-γ and e-γ coincidence measurements. New levels at 133.0, 293.2, 790.0, 953.0, 1020.8, 1184.3, 1198.5 and 1258.2 keV not observed in earlier (p, n) studies have been established. Conversion coefficients of most of the low-lying transitions have been determined. Angular distributions of some of theγ-rays were also measured and compared with the statistical model calculations. DefiniteJπ assignments have been made to most of the low-lying levels. Life-times of the 112.1, 133.0, 286.7 and 293.2 keV levels have been measured to be 0.69±0.12, 5.3±0.6, 1.35±0.15 and 31±2 nsec respectively. The reduced transition probabilities for various low-lying transitions have been determined and compared with recent calculations. The 1/2 and 9/2+ levels hitherto unknown in this nucleus has been identified. The structure of the low-lying levels is discussed in terms of the existing models.

    • Covariant fields: Poincaré group representations and metric structure in the space of quantum states

      P M Mathews

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      The representations of the Poincaré group realized over the space of covariant fields transforming according to any irreducible representationD(m,n) of the Lorentz group are constructed explicitly with reference to a helicity basis. The representation is indecomposable in the massless case. The form of this representation together with the invariance of two-point Wightman functions of the field (which follows from a weak set of axioms) determines the metric structure in the space of quantum states of the field. This structure is explicitly determined for generalD(m,n). Certain particular cases (especially the symmetric traceless tensor field) are discussed in detail. Finally we consider the representation pertaining to massive fields, and examine the passage to the limit of vanishing mass. We present a limiting procedure which leads from the unitary representation of the massive field to the indecomposable non-unitary representation of the massless field.

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