Volume 2, Issue 3
March 1974, pages 107-170
pp 107-115 March 1974 Plasmas
Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering are studied in metals and gaseous plasmas, for an incident laser frequencyω1 greater than the corresponding plasma frequencyωplin the medium. The calculation of threshold powers for the stimulated scattering in aluminium metal and non-degenerate Al-plasmas shows that their values become quite small asω1 approachesωplFor the case of backward wave scattering we also estimate the critical power above which a temporal instability sets in such media. It is argued that this instability may be one of the factors for anomalously large absorption of high power laser beams in laser-induced plasmas.
pp 116-125 March 1974 Solids
Simple approximation schemes are developed to calculate induced optical fields and local field corrections to the linear optical dielectric function in metals like aluminium and in insulators like germanium. In these calculations, the unperturbed electronic states in Ge are described within the framework of the bonding orbital approach, whereas the nearly-free-electron approximation is used for Al. As expected, explicit numerical calculations show that the contribution to secondary longitudinal induced fields is more appreciable in Ge. The second order susceptibility describing the non-linear mixing of an optical frequency with an x-ray frequency, which depends upon the magnitude of the microscopic induced optical charge density, is also calculated for these solids. For most relevant wavevectors of secondary optical fields, it is found to be of the order of 10−12 esu in Ge and 10−14 esu in Al.
pp 126-137 March 1974 Solids
The recoilless absorption spectra of iron in the ternary alloys CoFeGe, CoFeSb and FeMnGe, which possess B82 type structure, reveal the existence of different ordering temperatures of moments at 2(a) and 2(d) sites. Using the Einstein model to describe the second order Doppler shift, it has been found thatΘE appropriate to the thermal motions of iron atoms at 2(a) and 2(d) sites in CoFeGe are different, which is also suggested by the temperature dependences of the relative areas of the corresponding component spectra. In CoFeSb, on the other hand, relative areas of the component spectra are independent of temperature, and give the relative distribution of iron at the inequivalent sites. A large difference in the isomer shifts of 2(a) and 2(d) site spectra indicates a larger number of d-electrons in the atomi configuration for 2(a) atoms. The isomer shift change is negative for 2(a) site nuclei and positive for 2(d) site nuclei with increase in temperature. The magnetic fields at 2(d) site nuclei in CoFeGe and CoFeSb alloys indicate that the moments of the parent atoms are not much different from the value in iron metal.
pp 138-147 March 1974 Solids
The shape and fine structure of the x-ray LIII absorption discontinuity of ytterbium (Z=70) has been studied in the pure metal and in several of its compounds. The shape and the near edge structure of the discontinuity in the metal reflects the band structure. A molecular orbital interpretation for the fine structure near the absorption edge has been proposed for the spectrum of the sesqui-oxide. The average bond lengths for the systems studied have been determined from the measurements on the fine structure employing Lytle’s and Levy’s methods and are compared with the available crystallographic data in the case of the metal, oxide and fluoride.
pp 148-157 March 1974 Liquids
The scattering of 4.1 Å neutrons by liquid ammonia has been measured at 218 K in the angular range of 30–90° using the Trombay rotating crystal spectrometer. The experimental data, after correcting for multiple scattering, have been compared with model calculations, and it is shown that it is possible to get detailed information about the rotational correlation function on the basis of neutron experiments alone. The model assumes Langevin diffusion for translational motions. Rotational motions are described by means of an orientational correlation function which has a gaseous behaviour for times up toτ0 and then changes over to a diffusive character with a rotational diffusion constantDr. Within the framework of the model the correlation function can be described withDr=0.28×1013sec−1 andτ0=0.57×10−18sec. Corrections for multiple scattering and their dependence on model parameters are discussed.
pp 158-170 March 1974 Cosmology
The ideas originally proposed to discuss continuous creation of matter are reconsidered in the context of the big bang cosmological models. It is shown that singularity-free big bang models are possible under the modified field equations of general relativity. However, the case is made out that matter creation takes place in several mini-bangs at different epochs rather than in one big bang. The implications of this idea for high energy astrophysics and for gravitational radiation are discussed.
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