Volume 96, Issue 5
November 1986, pages 335-427
pp 335-341 November 1986
Mycological research in Singapore is carried out primarily in the Botany Department, National University of Singapore. The areas of research include studies on general mycoflora, soil fungi, freshwater and marine fungi, leaf surface fungi, mushrooms, food and feed fungi, fungi causing biodeterioration and fungi of importance in enzyme and flavour production. The department’s collection of fungi consists of living cultures and herbarium specimens. The two main problems facing mycological research are the lack of assistance in identification of fungi and the lack of manpower.
pp 343-355 November 1986
Mycological research activity in Thailand were widely spread in almost every field in biological science. This report reviewed some research activities concerning fungal flora in Tropics, agricultural area, industrial area and biodeterioration. In agricultural area, the review included plant pathology, seed borne pathogen and aflatoxin, composting, mushroom cultivation, mycorrhiza and biological control. In industrial area, fermentation for citric acid, soy sauce, kaomag (sweetened rice), alcohol and pigment production were covered. Problems in each topic were discussed.
pp 357-358 November 1986
pp 359-362 November 1986
This paper gives an overview of the mycoflora of the Philippine Islands, starting from its earliest record before 1900 to the present time. It also shows the extensive collections available at the Mycological Herbarium of the UPLB museum of Natural History but there is still a need for more systematic studies on various groups of the fungi.
pp 363-371 November 1986
Many Research Institutions and Universities in Malaysia are actively involved in taxonomical research of Macro- and Micro-fungi, biology of fungi, mycorrhizal studies and other related subjects. Reference collection of Agarics and Polypores are being established in the FRIM Kepong.
pp 373-374 November 1986
A general account of the recent progress of the floristic survey of Formosan fungi is provided. Particular emphases are placed on the discussion of a vertical and a seasonal distribution of Agaricales, distribution of Endogonaceae in Bamboo forest, biology ofTricholoma matsutake (Ito et Imai) Singer, and distribution of noxious fungi on the Shiitake bed logs.
pp 375-377 November 1986
Mycological research is still at a preliminary stage in Sri Lanka. Most of the research carried out has been restricted to certain parts of the island. The main areas of research include plant pathogenic fungi, soil fungi and mushrooms. The history, present state and problems facing mycological research in Sri Lanka are described.
pp 379-392 November 1986
A brief survey of the development of mycology in India is given with a view to giving a general picture of its present status. The importance of further exploration of the Indian mycoflora is stressed: this is supported by a summation of the results of exploration of micro-fungi in the western ghats in India, with special reference to the Hyphomycetes and some groups in the Ascomycotina. The areas and lines on which future work should concentrate and the need for the establishment of a Culture Collection and Identification Centre for Fungi are highlighted.
pp 393-400 November 1986
Rice bran wax was found to contain 1, 3-propane diol mono- and diesters of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acids. The unsaturated esters (especially diesters) are found to be eminently active in the biological growth of rice and wheat seedlings in laboratory tests and under field conditions. They are able to induce appreciable increase in root length, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content and rate of photosynthesis in seedlings/plants and also yield of rice grains in the field. An extract of alfalfa revealed the presence of another family of diol esters, namely, 2-methyl 1, 4-butane diol esters of unsaturated acids which are at least as good as the 1, 3-propane diol esters in the plant growth regulating activities. Therefore, the plant growth regulating effect of alfalfa extract attributed to triacontanol could be due to the presence of diol esters as well. The natural occurrence of hitherto unreported diol esters and more importantly their plant growth regulating activities are now described.
pp 401-406 November 1986
Six new taxa (Aulosira aenigmatica var.cylindrica var. nov,A. fritschii var.singulare var. nov.,Scytonema schmidtii fa.minus fa. nov.,Calothrix marchica var.crassa fa.minor fa. nov., andCalothrix mutnalensis sp. nov.) the heterocystous members of Cyanophyta are reported.
pp 407-411 November 1986
Circadian periodicities for 11 airborne pollen types abundant in the air over Gulbarga was determined based on the air sampling data obtained by operating a Burkard volumetric spore trap for a period of one year from July 1984 to June 1985. In general, pollen concentration in air was high between 10–16 h with peak incidence around noon.
A number of circadian periodicities were observed. Peak concentration for most types occurred at about mid-day, these includedParthenium hysterophorus, Cyperaceae Amaranthus-chenopod group,Helianthus annus andXanthium strumarium. Acacia nilotica andCassia auriculata peaks were around dawn. Members of Poaceae,Eucalyptus sp. andArgemone mexicana showed post-dawn pattern.
pp 413-418 November 1986
Cells and protoplasts ofCatharanthus roseus were immobilized in alginate, agar and agarose. Cells immobilized in alginate, agar and agarose produced uniform cell suspensions in 2–3 weeks. Under normal conditions, the isolated protoplasts showed a few divisions but the divided protoplasts necrosed at the end of 8 weeks. Protoplasts immobilized in alginate failed to divide. Protoplasts immobilized in agar or agarose underwent divisions giving rise to cell suspensions.
pp 419-427 November 1986
Effects of 0·12, 0·25 and 0·5 ppm SO2 have been studied on growth, yield and carbohydrate contents ofVigna sinensis cv. Pusa Barsati. Bifacial necrotic lesions appeared on the middle and lower leaves exposed to 0·25 and 0·5 ppm SO2. A slight stimulation in plant height, root and shoot lengths was observed in 0·12 ppm SO2 exposure in early stages of plant growth. However, prolonged exposure caused significant reductions in all growth parameters and dry weight fractions and net primary productivity. The root weight reductions were higher than shoot weight. The flowering and first pod maturation were advanced by 1–4 days as a result of SO2 fumigation. Yield and yield attributes recorded a significant decrease. There was ca 50% reduction in seed yield per plant in 0·5 ppm SO2 exposures. Carbohydrate contents also recorded a decrease and leaf carbohydrates were most susceptible to SO2 pollution.