• Volume 93, Issue 2

      June 1984,   pages  83-187

    • Primary production and consumption in the deciduous forest ecosystem of Bandipur in South India

      S Narendra Prasad H C Sharatchandra

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      The net annual aerial production of the herb layer in the dry deciduous forest at Bandipur in South India was estimated.Axis axis feeds on 38 species of plants; spending 67–95% of their time on grazing alone. The seasonal trophic activity ofAxis axis shows that they spend more time feeding in summer than in monsoon period and this was related to the availability of forage. Grass constitutes the major food item in their diet and the foraging range of a herd varies from 22·56 hectares.

      The total food consumption ofAxis axis andLepus nigricollis together was estimated. These two herbivores together consume about 30% of the net aerial primary production of the herb layer. TheAxis axis population in addition, consume fruits in the dry period from January to May.

    • Two new bladderworts from South India

      Peter Taylor

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      Two new bladderwortsUtricularia cecilii sp. nov. andUtricularia lazulina sp. nov. from South India are described.

    • Development of the VAM fungus,Glomus mosseae in groundnut in static solution culture

      K Parvathi K Venkateswarlu A S Rao

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      The establishment of a mycorrhizal fungus,Glomus mosseae in groundnut was studied in a static nutrient solution having 0·25 mM of phosphorus and inoculated with powdered infected groundnut roots or resting spores. Initiation of the mycelial growth in roots was observed after 8 days of contact with the fungal inoculum.

      In a second experiment initial concentrations of P in the range of 0·25 to 1 mM resulted in maximum colonization by the fungus and increased production of the plant biomass. Plant growth and VAM development was slightly less in a pot culture without the addition of P to the soil. It is suggested that the static solution culture method can successfully be adopted to determine the requirement of initial levels of essential elements in culture solutions for investigating similar mycorrhizal associations of crop plants.

    • Carbohydrate changes induced by temperature and vitamins in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings

      P Gopala Rao G Sudarsanam

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      Temperature and vitamin-induced changes in root elongation are closely associated with changes in non-reducing sugar content in particular. Thiamine enhanced the reducing sugar content of the shoot and reduced that of the root at normal temperature. In contrast, elevated temperature caused a significant reduction in the reducing sugar content of the shoot and increased that of the root. Thiamine at elevated temperature showed a synergistic effect in decreasing the sugar content of the shoot and increasing it in the root. Although riboflavin could not enhance the reducing sugar content of the shoot at normal temperature, at elevated temperature its response was quite similar to that of thiamine. These differences were partly associated with amylase activity of the root and the shoot. Vitamin treatment preceded by elevated temperature showed synergistic effect with respect to non-reducing sugar content by increasing it in the shoot and the root. The role of vitamins is discussed.

    • Systematics of genusLygodium Sw. (Lygodiaceae) in India

      S Singh G Panigrahi

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      Lygodium Sw. belongs to the monogeneric family Lygodiaceae Presl.s.s. and is comprised of about 40 species in the world flora. Out of these 10 species are from India.L. giganteum Tagawa and Iwat. andL. mearnsii Copel. are new records whileL. longifolium (Willd.) Sw.,L. circinnatum (Burm. f.) Sw.,L. polystachyum Wall. ex Moore andL. altum (Clarke) v.A.v.R. are poorly represented amongst the Indian collections in herbaria. A key is provided for diagnosing the species from India along with the correct nomenclature of each taxon.

    • Pharmacognostic studies on ‘Sappan’ (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) and its market samples

      Shanta Mehrotra H P Sharma

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      ‘Sappan’ is considered a valuable astringent, alterative tonic, emmenagogue, blood purifier and anticoagulant. It strengthens the bones and teeth and is also used in boils and eruptions. The drug is ascribed to the heartwood ofCaesalpinia sappan. Accordingly, a detailed pharmacognosy ofCaesalpinia sappan was carried out and eight market samples of ‘Sappan’ procured from various parts of the country were evaluated with reference to the genuine drug. The present studies revealed that out of all the market samples studied only those from Bombay (B-II), Rishikesh and Hardwar resembled the genuine drug and were therefore identified as genuineC. sappan. The remaining samples were identified as differentPterocarpus species,Gluta travancorea Bedd. andToona ciliata M. J. Roem.

    • Pharmacognostic studies onArtemisia scoparia Waldst. and Kit.

      Usha Shome Pammie Joshi H P Sharma

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      Pharmacognosy of the floral and vegetative parts ofArtemisia scoparia Waldst, and Kit. (‘Dona’), a bitter aromatic herb used in the indigenous systems of medicine, was carried out with a view to lay down standards for the genuine drug. The parameters studied include anatomical and microscopic details of the different parts; certain physico-chemical constants such as ash values, percentage of tannins, and successive extractives; as well as qualitative detection of the main chemical constitutents in the various extractives. Thin layer chromatography and fluorescence tests of drug powder were also carried out. Presence of casparian strips in the endodermis, resin canals, four-to eight-celled characteristic glandular hairs on the corolla and absence of pappus are some of the diagnostic features of the drug.

    • Taxonomy ofBidens section Psilocarpaea (Asteraceae-Heliantheae-Coreopsidinae) in India

      K M M Dakshini Prithipalsingh

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      Critical examination of numerous specimens showed thatBidens sect. Psilocarpaea is represented in India only byB. pilosa var.β minor (Bl.) Sherff andB. bipinnata Linn. The occurrence ofB. biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff as suggested earlier could not be established during the present taxonomic investigation on the genusBidens in India.

    • Free amino acids in the developing leaves and flower bud ofAbelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

      E Nabeesa N Neelakandan

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      Free amino acids were determined at six chronologically comparable developmental stages each of leaves 1 and 2, bearing vegetative dormant axillary meristem and leaves 3 and 4, bearing axillary flower bud, inAbelmoschus esculentus. Simultaneously, free amino acids were determined in the flower bud at the third leaf axil at four stages of growth. The developmental pattern of the amino acids has been interpreted in the light of the source activity of the leaves.

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